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and the honourable name of "miles," or soldier, was confined to the gentlemen who served on horseback, and were invested with the character of knighthood.

360. Who attended the knights to the field? Their faithful squires, youths of equal birth and similar hopes. Their archers, and six men at arms, and four, or five, or six soldiers, were computed as the furniture of complete lances.

361. When did the princes march to Constantinople? A.D. 1096.

362. How were they accompanied?

When the leaders were relieved by the absence of the plebeian multitude, they encouraged each other to perform their vows; and, accompanied by their wives and sisters, taking with them their portable treasures in bars of silver and gold, and their equipages of hounds and hawks, they assumed the cross for the deliverance of the holy sepulchre.

363. What number of Crusaders would have migrated from Europe to Asia, had all who took their cross accomplished their vow?

Six millions.

364. What loss did the first Crusade sustain?

The savage countries of Hungary and Bulgaria were whitened with their bones; their vanguard was cut in pieces by the Turkish sultan; and the loss of the first adventure, by the sword, or climate, or fatigue, amounted to three hundred thousand men.

365. Was this comparatively a small number?

Yes, for the myriads that survived pressed forward on their march to the Holy Land in a mass so terrific



as to be a subject of astonishment to themselves and the Greeks.

366. How does the Princess Anne, the historian of the times, describe this pilgrimage?

The daughter of Alexius exclaims, energetically, that Europe was loosened from its foundations, and hurled against Asia.

367. Of what nations were the troops?

Natives of France. The Low Countries, the banks of the Rhine, and Apuleia, sent a powerful reinforcement. Some bands of adventurers were drawn from Spain, Lombardy, and England; and even from the bogs and mountains of Ireland and Scotland.

368. What events followed?

The siege of Nice; the battle of Dorylæum; the principality of Edessa, founded by Baldwin; and the siege of Antioch.

369. When did the knights of the cross besiege Jerusalem?

A.D. 1099.

370. How was the siege directed?

Against the northern and western sides of the city. Godfrey of Bouillon erected his standard on the first swell of Mount Calvary to the left, as far as St. Stephen's Gate, the line of attack was continued by Tancred and the two Roberts; and Count Raymond established his quarters from the citadel to the foot of Mount Sion, which was no longer included within the precincts of the city.

371. When was the holy city rescued from the Mahometans?



Four hundred and sixty years after the conquest of Omar. On Friday, at three, the hour of the passion, Godfrey of Bouillon stood victorious on the walls of Jerusalem.

372. Was the reign of Godfrey of Bouillon peaceful?

No, the judicious government of the defender and baron of the holy sepulchre was interrupted by a summons to the field by the approach of the vizir or sultan of Egypt.

373. Were the Fatimites defeated?

In the battle of Ascalon, A.D. 1099, they were totally overthrown.

374. What force did the new king retain for the defence of Palestine?

The gallant Tancred, with three hundred knights, and two thousand foot soldiers.

375. Did Godfrey extend his dominions?

Yes, until they equalled the possessions of the ancient princes of Judah and Israel.

376. Enumerate his conquests.

The maritime cities of Laodicea, Tripoli, Tyre, and Ascalon, and the range of sea-coast from Scanderoon to the borders of Egypt. The counts of Edessa and Tripoli owned themselves vassals of the king of Jerusalem, and the Latins reigned beyond the Euphrates.

377. What was the assize of Jerusalem?

A code composed by Godfrey of Bouillon, attested by the king, the patriarch, and the Viscount of Jerusalem, and deposited in the holy sepulchre.

378. How were the justice and freedom of the constitution maintained?



By two tribunals of unequal dignity, the court of peers, and the court of burgesses.

379. Who undertook the second Crusade?

Conrad the Third, and Louis the Seventh, A.D. 1147.

380. Who led the third Crusade?

Frederic Barbarossa; A.D. 1189.

381. Whom did Conrad summon to join him?

The kings of Poland and Bohemia, with the nations from Britain to Rome; so numerous a host, that after numbering nine hundred thousand, the Byzantines ceased the computation.

382. Was the third Crusade less numerous?

It was numbered six hundred thousand: of these, fifteen thousand knights and as many squires were the flower of German chivalry; and sixty thousand horse, and one hundred thousand foot, were mustered by the emperor in the plains of Hungary.

383. What curious troop rode under the banners of Conrad?

A troop of women, in the armour of men. The chief of these Amazons, from her gilt spurs and buskins, obtained the epithet of the golden-footed dame.

384. Were crusades obstinately continued?

The perseverance of the pilgrim warriors may excite our pity and admiration, that so much zeal should have existed, and that zeal have been so wofully misapplied.

385. How frequent were these emigrations?

For a period of two centuries after the council of Clermont, they took place each succeeding spring and




386. How many great armaments or crusades were there?


387. In what year did St. Bernard execute his mission?

A.D. 1091.

388. What was the progress of the Mamelukes?

After the loss of Jerusalem, the commanders of the faithful could only weep. Syria was a fugitive; Bagdad mourned in the dust ;-the Cadhi Zeineddin of Damascus tore his beard in the caliph's presence; and the whole divan shed tears at his melancholy tale. The commanders themselves were captives in the hands of the Turks.

389. Who was Noureddin?

The valiant son of Zenghi, a Turk; he gradually united the Mahometan powers; added the kingdom of Damascus to that of Aleppo, waged successful war against the Christians of Syria, and reigned from the Tigris to the Nile.

390. When was Egypt conquered by the Turks? A.D. 1163.

391. Who was the last of the Fatimite caliphs? Adhed, A.D. 1171.

392. When did Great Saladin reign?

From A.D. 1171, to A.D. 1193. The genuine virtues of Saladin, commanded the esteem of the Christians; the emperor of Germany gloried in his friendship, and the Greek emperor solicited his alliance.

393. To whom did the sceptre of Godfrey of Bouillon devolve?

To Melisenda, daughter of the second Baldwin, and

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