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332. What was the progress of society in Spain? It was retarded in civilisation by the wars between the Christians and Moors.

333. Who is the great historian of Spain?

Mariana," who has infused," says Gibbon, "into his noble work the style and spirit of a Roman classic."

334. When did the Christian princes, who had been driven northwards, rally, and advance against the Mahometans?

In the eleventh century. They were encouraged by the intestine divisions of the Moors, who had, for a few centuries, exhibited their superiority in war, and their magnificence in peace.

335. What objects claim attention at this period? The siege of Toledo, and the exploits of the Spanish general, Don Roderigo Dias de Bivar.


336. From what event may we date the decline of power of the Mahometans in Spain?

They never recovered from the battle of Toloso.

337. What king flourished at this period?

Alphonso-more remarkable for his talents as an astronomer than a legislator.

338. What kingdoms was Spain divided into at this time?

The Mahometan kingdom of Granada, and the Christian monarchies of Castille, Arragon, Navarre, and Portugal, distinguished from each other by their respective laws and limits.

339. When did these divisions cease?

With the union of the crowns of Castille and Arragon,



under Ferdinand and Isabella, and the defence, capitulation, and expulsion of the Moors.

340. Had the Christians and Moors equal advantages?

Yes; but the north of Spain was more fitted than the south to produce active and hardy warriors. Among the Christians, the warlike ardour of chivalry was advancing on the contrary, the enthusiasm of the followers of Mahomet had spent itself in conquest; and the fiercer passions of their nature were lost in the blandishments of pleasure. Their skill in the science of war had not progressed; and in the Spaniards they had foes who considered themselves the rightful possessors of the country.

341. Did the reign of the Moors obliterate all traces of Gothic legislature?

No, the laws and manners of the ancient possessors survived, notwithstanding the conquest and the long struggles that followed. The provinces of Spain having been slowly wrested from the Moors, were divided among military leaders; and the feudal lord in no country appeared more powerful and independent.

342. What remarkable institution was peculiar to Arragon?

The office of justiza, a supreme judge; in reality the guardian of the people, and controller of the prince,every precaution being taken to control, in his turn, the justiza himself, and to provide against the powers of this singular representative of the general interests of the community.

343. Were the Arragonese attached to their form of government?

Their veneration for this singular constitution was



superstitious, and reconciled them to poverty and the barrenness of their country. The Arragonese Cortes was proud in principle and strong in power.

344. What were the results of this system?

Continual struggles between the king, justiza, and Cortes; alike unavailing in removing a radical error.

345. Of what did the Cortes consist?

Of three estates, and possessed powers analogous to those of our parliaments in England.

346. How, then, did the constitutions of Spain, and other parts of Europe, differ from that of England?

The powers of the crown were too limited; and the barons enjoyed prerogatives inconsistent with the order, peace, and prosperity of the community.

347. What was the origin of the first Crusade?

Peter, a native of Amiens, in Picardy, became an enthusiastic devotee, and, excited by the injuries he received from the Turks, he returned to Europe to advocate the cause of the oppressed Christians. Pope Urban regarded him as a prophet, applauded his project of rousing the martial nations of Europe to bear arms against the Saracens, and promised to support it in a general council, proclaiming the deliverance of the Holy Land.

348. Where was this council held?

At Clermont, in the territories of the Count of Auvergne, where the pope could brave, with impunity, the resentment of Philip the First.

349. On whom did the Crusaders first wreak their thirst for blood?

On the Jews, who dwelt in the trading cities of the



Moselle and the Rhine, where they enjoyed the protection of the emperor and the bishops. At Verdun,

Treves, Mentz, Spires, and Worms, many thousands of that unhappy people were pillaged and massacred, and experienced a persecution almost equal to that of Hadrian.

350. What was the fate of the first Crusaders ?

The infuriated mob that followed the hermit, Peter, perished before a single city was rescued from the infidels, overwhelmned by the Turkish arrows on the plains of Nice. Their graver and nobler companions, who had not completed their preparations for enterprise, found a pyramid of bones to inform them where their more zealous comrades had fallen.

351. Who were the chiefs of the first Crusade? The first rank is justly due to Godfrey of Bouillon, a worthy representative of Charlemagne.

352. By whom was he accompanied ?

His two brothers, Eustace, the elder, and Baldwin.

353. Of what was the confederate force that marched under his banner composed?

Fourscore thousand foot, and ten thousand horse.

354. Did any of the great sovereigns of Europe embark their persons in the first Crusade?

No, the emperor Henry the Fourth was not disposed to obey the summons of the pope; Philip the First of France was occupied by his pleasures; William Rufus of England by a recent conquest; the kings of Spain were engaged in a domestic war against the Moors; and the northern monarchs of Scotland, Denmark, Sweden, and Poland, were yet strangers to the passions and interests of the south.


355. Name some of the other chiefs?


Hugh, Count of Vermandois, surnamed the Great, the brother of the King of France; Robert, Duke of Normandy, the eldest son of William the Conqueror ; Robert, Count of Flanders (a royal province which, in this century, gave queens to France, England, and Denmark,) Robert of Flanders was surnamed the Sword and Lance of the Christians; and Stephen, Count of Chartres, of Blois, and of Troyes, one of the richest princes of the age, the number of his castles being compared to the three hundred and sixty-five days of the year. Stephen was chosen president of the council for his literary talents and eloquence.

356. Who assumed command of the Crusaders in the south of France?

Adhemar, bishop of Puy, the pope's legate, and Raymond, Count of St. Giles and Thoulouse, who had the prouder titles of Duke of Narbonne and Marquis of Provence.

357. Who exercised the coolest policy and ambition? Bohemond, son of Robert Guiscard, famous for his double victory over the Greek emperor, though reduced by his father's will to the principality of Tarentum. This Norman chief was awakened by the rumour and passage of the French pilgrims.

358. Who accompanied this veteran general?

Several princes of the Norman race; and his cousin, Tancred, an accomplished and virtuous knight, shared the command.

359. What was the military character of this chivalry?



The service of the infantry was degraded to the plebeians, the cavalry formed the strength of the armies,

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