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"The Father of the country" won the council by his oratory and the justice of his measures, and the auxiliary troops were induced to renew their engagements, by the liberality of his adherents.

638. Where were field-pieces first used by the Florentine army


On the banks of the river Riccardi, in the territory of Bologna: the effect was ludicrous, as the artillery merely took off the heel of the Prince of Ferrara's boot.

639. What other circumstance is mentioned by the Sieur de Varillas ?

Night approaching before the battle was ended, the black guards, grooms, and footmen kindled flambeaux, and held them on the field to light their masters,a custom usual at tournaments.

640. How did Lorenzo treat the rebellious Volterrans ?

He besieged the town, and compelled them to surrender at discretion by stratagem the state of Volterra was saved from pillage; a politic measure for a general who wished to enlist the citizens in his favour.

641. For whom did Lorenzo solicit a cardinal's cap?

His brother Guiliano; but Pope Sixtus the Fourth objected to the terms, and refused to confer the dignity.

642. How did Lorenzo take revenge?

He wasted the army of the church before Tiserno, and threw obstacles in the way of the pope's nephew, who aimed at the sovereignty of Immola.



643. What did this give rise to?

The Pazzi conspiracy; the death of Guiliano de Medici followed: the accomplices were all punished. The archbishop of Pisa was executed in his pontifical robes, but Bandini escaped into Turkey.

644. At whose suggestion did Bajazet the Second deliver up Bandini to the Florentines?

He blindly followed all the sentiments of Cady Bashaw, his prime vizir,—a fact confirmed by his son, Selim the First, who, when asked, "Why he did not wear a long beard, like his father's?" replied, "It was because he feared the bashaws would take him by it and lead him where they listed."

645. Who formed a league between the pope and the king of Naples, against the Florentines?

The commissioner Nardi.

646. How did Lorenzo meet this new difficulty?

He sustained the war until abandoned by his allies; In this dilemma, he boldly resolved to surprise King Ferrand of Naples; and inviting the young Florentine nobles to follow him, under the pretence of a hunting match, sailed for Naples, frustrated the measures of Resalli the ambasador, and gaining the confidence of the king, induced him to dissolve the league; and procured peace to the Florentines.

647. How did the king of Naples derive benefit from the friendship of Lorenzo?

Two years afterwards Ferrand was oppressed by his nobles, who with the pope and the Venetians sought to dethrone him; Lorenzo, unsolicited, flew to his succour, bribed the enemies' troops, caused the Orsini to declare for him, and restored the power to the crown.



648. Did the peace of Italy end with the life of Lorenzo?

Yes; the impetuous Piero, his eldest son, reckless of consequences, governed so imprudently, that the power of the house of Medici was undermined by the discontent of the citizens of Florence, and the neighbouring states were involved in the revolt.

649. Was Lorenzo the most celebrated man after Mecænas who supported the magnificence of his establishment by a private fortune?

Yes; and his taste for literature induced him to patronise the arts and sciences, to build and endow schools, where he distributed rewards, and encouraged genius by his own example.

650. How did he employ the Greeks who sought refuge at Florence?

He commissioned them to buy all the ancient manuscripts that had been pillaged from Constantinople, and formed the library which afterwards became a subject of contention to other nations.

651. When was this library plundered?

From the time of Charles the Eighth to the regency of Catherine de Medici, who by force and artifice obtained a portion of it out of the hands of the English, and during her lifetime prevented their being placed with the king's manuscripts.

652. What was the object Lorenzo had in view?

He designed to attract the literati of Europe by his vast collection; he invited all, and had daily provision made for their reception. Conferences were held, and masters were appointed for all who desired instruction in painting, sculpture, &c.



653. Name one of this school whose name is immortalised.

Michael Angelo: at nineteen he executed a copy from an antique which could not be distinguished from the original.

654. How did Lorenzo conciliate the discontented citizens of Pisa?

By persuading the Florentines to found a university there.

655. In what manner did Lorenzo contribute to its renown?

He conferred honours and emoluments, attracted professors from other universities by his liberality, and by placing the young Cardinal de Medici there to study civil and canon law, drew the attention of other noble families.

656. Name the seven learned men who assisted him in examining the progress of the students.

Johannes Picus de la Mirandola, Angelus Politianus, Marsileo Ficino, Christophano Laudini, Johannes Lascaris, Demetrius Chalcondilas, and Marcellus Trachamontano.

657. From whom was Giovanni Pico, sovereign Prince della Mirandola, descended?

Constantine the Great: he was surnamed "the phoenix of wits;" at eighteen he knew two-and-twenty tongues. His celebrated thesis was criticised publicly by a deputation of literati at Rome, and his replies were so brilliant and conclusive that they astonished the world.

658. What is said of the friendship of the Prince of Mirandola and Lorenzo de Medici?

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They daily communicated their researches, exchanged works, and corrected one another's compositions.

659. When did this amiable and accomplished prince breathe his last?

At the very moment that Charles the Eighth entered Florence, and the library of the Medici was pillaged: the favourite son of science was spared, by death, the pang of witnessing the sacrilege, and before he completed his work against the astrologers he died of fever, in the thirty-second year of his age.

660. How did Cardinal Bessarion lose the election to the papal chair?

Through the obstinate and impolitic conduct of Nicolo Perroti his conclavist, who refused admittance to his colleagues.

661. Name some celebrated men who have borne testimony to the greatness of his character.

Popes, Eugenius the Fourth, Nicholas the Fifth, and Pius the Second, declared on their death-beds to the sacred college that Bessarion was the man worthy of being their successor.

662. Where did Bessarion die?

At Ravenna. The house of Medici erected a mausoleum to his memory.

663. What measures did Lodovico Sforza take to exclude the Duke of Calabria from the crown of Naples?

He solicited Charles the Eighth of France to enter Italy, and establish his ancestor's pretensions to the two Sicilies, in order to be revenged on the Duke of Calabria, who opposed his wishes to negociate for his sister, the Princess Isabella of Naples, and scornfully

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