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Morea. Siege and Sack of Otranto.-Death of Mahomet.-
Four principal Causes of the Ruin of Rome 688 to 735


Germany and the House of Austria.-Golden Bull of Charles the
Fourth.-Power of the Crown.-Princes and Potentates.-
Helvetic Confederacy.-Switzerland. - The Three Patriotic
Nations. Characteristics.- Duke Leopold's Invasion.
Morgarten.-Three Forest Cantons augmented to thirteen.
-Second Duke Leopold.-Sempach.-Arnold.-Swiss Mer-
cenaries.-Legislative System
..... 736 to 755

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The Reformation.-The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries.-
General Situation of Europe.-The effect of the Fall of
Constantinople on Western Europe.-The Revival of Learn-
ing. Opposition to the Papacy.-Evils consequent on the
Reformation. · Persecutions.. Capabilities of Europe for
Controversy.-Beneficial Results.--Huss.- Ziska. -- Calvin.
--Francis the First.--Sir Thomas More.--Melancthon.-
Edward the Sixth.--Cranmer.--Emperor Charles the Fifth.
--Appeal to the Scriptures a result.-Progress of Science.-
Wickliffe.--Knox.-Queen Elizabeth
756 to 784
Civil and Religious Wars of France.-Forty years' Tragedy.-
Francis the First. Family of the Guises. -- Katharine de
Medicis.--Prince of Condé.- Constable Montmorency.--
Massacre of St. Bartholomew.The League. -- Duke of
Guise.-Barricadoes in Paris.-Siege of the Louvre.-Swiss
Guards.-State of Society
785 to 792



Henry the Fourth.-Difficulties on Accession.-Duke of Mayenne.
-Duke of Parma.-Victory at Ivri.-State of Society during
the Religious Wars.-States-General.-Henry's Government.
-Spirit of the Nobility.-Edict of Nantz.-Privileges of
Dissenters in France. Maximilian de Bethune. - Henry's
failings. Assassination by Ravaillac
793 to 802


Philip the Second and his Dutch and Flemish subjects.-Cardinal
Granville.-The Duke of Alva.-Council of Tumults.-The
Duke of Feria.-Prince of Eboli.-Margaret of Parma.-
Prince of Orange.-Protestant German Princes.-Conduct
of the Flemings.-The Seven Provinces.-Requesens.-
Peace of Passau.-Thirty years' War.-Austrian_Princes.-
Maximilian.-Rodolph.-Ferdinand the Second.-The Elector
Palatine. Gustavus Adolphus.- Battle of Lützen.— Ber-
nard the Great.-Duke Ernest.-Louis the Thirteenth.-


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878 to 882

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George the Third.-Causes of the American War.-Franklin.-

Grenville.-Pitt.-Governor Pownall.-Colonel Barré.--Fox.

-Lord North.-Power of Taxation.-Executive Government

wanting.-Washington.-State of the Army.-Provincial

Legislation.-Limited Authority of Congress.-Federal Go-

vernment of 1789.--Washington elected President.-General

Feeling in America towards Great Britain and France.--

Colonel Hamilton and Mr. Secretary Jefferson.-Merits of

Washington.-New York.-Henry Hudson.-Island of Man-

hattan. Grant to the Duke of York.-Declaration of Inde-

pendence. Battle of Long Island.-Final Evacuation of the

British.-First Amerian Congress.-New York Harbour.-

Battery.-Camanché Indians.-Sauks and Foxes.-Sioux and

Ioway Tribes.-Lost Tribes of Israel.-Major Noah.-Ben-

jamin of Tudela.-Alvarez.-Traces of Jewish Ancestry.-

Hebrew Words and Customs.-Indian Festivals.-Manasseh

hen Israel.-William Penn.-Emanuel de Merazy.—Monsieur

de Quiques.-Beltrami.-The Earl of Crawford and Lindsey.

-Indians of Mexico and Peru.-Montesini.-Acosta.-

Escobartus.-The Cholula.-Quetzacolt.-Malvenda.-Mon-

tezuma.-Inca Yupanque.-Clavagero and De Vega.-The

Great Temple.-Lord Kingsborough.-Natchez Tribe.-Du

Pratz.-Mr. Catlin.-Museum of Indian Curiosities.-Mr.

Buckingham.-Speculation in the United States.-Importa-

tion of Corn.-"The District of Columbia."-City of Wash-

ington. The Capitol.-Observations of an Indian Chief.-

Pocahontas and Captain Smith.-Sculptures of Signor Capel-

lano, of Causici, of Gevelot.-Colonel Trumbull's Historical

Paintings. The Senate Chamber.-Rotunda.-Hall of Re-

presentatives.-Library.―Order of Proceedings in the House

of Assembly.-The President's House.-Washington's First

Commission.-The Arsenal.-General Post-office.-Gilbert

Stuart.-Baltimore," The Monumental City."-"Washington

Monument."-"The Battle Monument."-" The Statue of

the City."-The Armistead Monument.-Springs and Foun-

tains.-Pennsylvania.-Philadelphia.-Parentage and Edu-

cation of Penn.-Conquest of Jamaica by Admiral Penn

883 to 949

Louis the Sixteenth.-Marie Antoinette.-Bastile destroyed.-
Execution of Louis.-France declared a Republic.-Religion
formally abolished. - Peace with Spain and Prussia. -
Austrians in Italy.-Mantua taken.-Loretto pillaged.-
Peace between France and Germany.-Venice.-Treaty of

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Campo Formio.-Genoa conquered.-Rome declared a republic,
and the Pope sent prisoner to France.-Switzerland.-Battle
of the Pyramids.-Egypt.-Sir Ralph Abercrombie.-Inva-
sion of Italy.-Treaty of Luneville.-Spain and Portugal.—
Toussaint and St. Domingo. Peace of Amiens.- War
between England and France.-Buonaparte declared Emperor.
-Treaty of Austerlitz.-War between Prussia and France.
-Treaty of Tilsit.—Emigration of the Portuguese Royal
Family to the Brazils.-Bernadotte declared Crown Prince
of Sweden.—Buonaparte's Russian Expedition.-Alliance of
England, Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden against France.
-Buonaparte sent to Elba. - Escape.-Battle of Quatre
Bras.-Battle of Waterloo.-Disbanding of the French Army.
-Death of Buonaparte.-Death of Louis the Eighteenth.—
Charles the Tenth.-Death of Alexander, Emperor of all the
Russias. Portugal.— Greece.—Algiers.-Louis Philippe.-
Holland and Belgium.-Siege of Antwerp
950 to 983


Egypt.-Mohammed Ali Pacha.-Extinction of the Mamelukes.-
Ibraham.-Bedouins.-Hassan Bey.-Siege of Missilonghi.—
Marco Bozzaris.-Pyramid of Skulls.-Sultan Mahmoud.-
Slaughter of the Janizaries.-Emperor Nicholas.—Title of
Czar.-Russian Serfs.-Devotion to the Emperor.-Govern-
ment of Russia.-Russian Army.-The Kirquish.—The burn-
ing of Moscow.-Napoleon in Moscow.-Polish Revolution.
-Fall of Poland.-Treachery of the Governor of Warsaw.--
Government of China.-Titles of the Emperor.-The Nuy-ko.
-The Keun-ke-ta-chin. The Luh-poo. The Lefâu-
yuen.-The Too-cha-yuen. The " Army of Heaven."—Causes
of the War with Affghanistan.-Shah Shooja-ool-Moolk.—
Ameer Dost Mahomed.-Nadir Shah V.-Ahmed Shah
proclaimed King by the title of Doora Dooranee.-Timour
Shah.Shah Zimaun.-Mahmood.-Futti Khan.- Shah
Shooja defeated between Peshawur and Cabul and at
Candahar. His flight to the Punjab.-Runjeet Singh.-
Negociations of the British for opening the navigation of the
Indus.--Intrigues of Persia and Russia.-Siege of Herat.-
Measures of the British Government for the security of the
Frontier.-Success of the British Arms
984 to 1000.




1. WHEN do the northern nations first claim our attention?

About the middle of the third century, under the reign of Valerian and Gallienus, they began everywhere to press forward, and were seen fairly struggling with the Romans for the empire of Europe. They had destroyed five consular armies-encountered Mariuscontended with Julius Cæsar-annihilated Varus and his three legions, and given the title of Germanicus to the first Roman of his age. In the time of Marcus Antoninus they formed a general union, and were not subdued till after a long and doubtful conflict.

2. Can original connexions be traced between the Goths and Greeks?

Thucydides says, that the distinction between Greeks and barbarians was not in being until after Homer's time; that in the more remote ages, the inhabitants of the country from the most southern parts of the Peloponnesus to the sides of the Euxine, were one people, known by various names, but resembling each other in manners and customs, having mutual intercourse, and understanding the same languages. One of their general and most ancient names was Pelasgi. At first they had no fixed habitations, but roved about in clans,


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