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CHAPTER CVII

ENTITLED, NECESSARIES; WHERE IT WAS REVEALED IS DISPUTED

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD

What thinkest thou of him who denieth the future judgment as a falsehood? It is he who pusheth away the orphan; and stirreth not up others to feed the poor. Woe be unto those who pray, and who are negligent at their prayer; who play the hypocrites, and deny necessaries to the needy.

CHAPTER CVIII

ENTITLED, AL CAWTHAR; REVEALED AT MECCA

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD

Verily we have given thee al Cawthar.1 Wherefore pray unto thy Lord; and slay the victims. Verily he who hateth thee shall be childless.

CHAPTER CIX

ENTITLED, THE UNBELIEVERS; REVEALED AT MECCA

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD

Say: O unbelievers, la I will not worship that which ye wor

1 This word signifies "abundance," especially of "good," and thence "the gift of wisdom and prophecy," the Koran, the “office of intercessor," etc. Or it may imply "abundance of children, followers," and the like. It is generally, however, expounded of a river in paradise of that name, whence the water is derived into Mohammed's pond, of which the blessed are to drink before their admission into that place. According to a tradition of the prophet's, this river, wherein his Lord promised him abundant good, is sweeter than honey, whiter than milk, cooler than snow, and smoother than cream; its banks are of chrysolites, and the vessels to drink thereout of silver; and those who drink of it shall never thirst.

1a It is said that certain of the Koreish once proposed to Mohammed that if he would worship their gods for a year, they would worship his God for the same space of time; upon which this chapter was revealed.

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ship; nor will ye worship that which I worship. Neither do I worship that which ye worship; neither do ye worship that which I worship. Ye have your religion, and I my religion.

CHAPTER CX

ENTITLED, ASSISTANCE; REVEALED AT MECCA

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD

When the assistance of God shall come, and the victory; and thou shalt see the people enter into the religion of God by troops: celebrate the praise of thy Lord, and ask pardon of him;1 for he is inclined to forgive.

CHAPTER CXI

ENTITLED, ABU LAHEB; REVEALED AT MECCA

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD

The hands of Abu Laheb shall perish, 1a and he shall perish. His riches shall not profit him, neither that which he hath gained. He shall go down to be burned into flaming fire; and his wife also, bearing wood, having on her neck a cord of twisted fibers of a palm-tree.

1 Most of the commentators agree this chapter to have been revealed before the taking of Mecca, and suppose it gave Mohammed warning of his death; for they say that when he read it al Abbas wept, and being asked by the prophet what was the reason of his weeping, answered, "Because it biddeth thee to prepare for death"; to which Mohammed replied, “It is as thou sayest." And hence, adds Jallalo'ddin, after the revelation of this chapter the prophet was more frequent in praising and asking pardon of God, because he thereby knew that his end approached; for Mecca was taken in the eighth year of the Hegira, and he died in the beginning of the tenth.

1a Abu Laheb was the surname of Abdal Uzza, one of the sons of Abd’almotalleb, and uncle to Mohammed. He was a most bitter enemy to his nephew, and opposed the establishment of his new religion to the utmost of his power. When that prophet, in obedience to the command he had received to "admonish his near relations," had called them together, and told them he "was a warner sent unto them before a grievous chastisement," Abu Laheb cried out, "Mayest thou perish! Hast thou called us together for this?" and took up a stone to cast at him. Whereupon this passage was revealed.

CHAPTER CXII

ENTITLED, THE DECLARATION OF GOD'S UNITY; 1 WHERE IT WAS REVEALED IS DISPUTED

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD

Say, God is one God; the eternal God: he begetteth not, neither is he begotten: and there is not any one like unto him.

CHAPTER CXIII

ENTITLED, THE DAYBREAK; WHERE IT WAS REVEALED IS DISPUTED

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD

Say, I fly for refuge unto the Lord of the daybreak, that he may deliver me from the mischief of those things which he hath created; and from the mischief of the night, when it cometh on; and from the mischief of women blowing on knots; 1a and from the mischief of the envious, when he envieth.

1 This chapter is held in particular veneration by the Mohammedans, and declared, by a tradition of their prophet, to be equal in value to a third part of the whole Koran. It is said to have been revealed in answer to the Koreish, who asked Mohammed concerning the distinguishing attributes of the God he invited them to worship.

1a That is, of witches, who used to tie knots in a cord, and to blow on them, uttering at the same time certain magical words over them, in order to work on or debilitate the person they had a mind to injure. The commentators relate that Lobeid, a Jew, with the assistance of his daughters, bewitched Mohammed, by tying eleven knots on a cord, which they hid in a well; whereupon Mohammed falling ill, God revealed this chapter and the following, and Gabriel acquainted him with the use he was to make of them, and of the place where the cord was hidden: according to whose directions the prophet sent Ali to fetch the cord, and the same being brought, he repeated the two chapters over it, and at every verse (for they consist of eleven) a knot was loosed, till on finishing the last words, he was entirely freed from the charm.

CHAPTER CXIV

ENTITLED, MEN; WHERE IT WAS REVEALED IS DISPUTED

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD

Say, I fly for refuge unto the Lord of men, the king of men, the God of men, that he may deliver me from the mischief of the whisperer who slyly withdraweth,1 who whispereth evil suggestions into the breasts of men; from genii and

men.

1 I.e., "The devil"; who withdraweth when a man mentioneth God, or hath recourse to his protection.

END OF THE KORAN

BIBLIOGRAPHY

For the general subject of early Arabic literature the reader is recommended to the following books:

R. A. NICHOLSON, "A Literary History of the Arabs" (Scribners,
New York, 1907).

F. F. ARBUTHNOT, "Arabic Authors" (London, 1890).

For Pre-Mohammedan poetry, both the texts and a discussion of them, read

LADY ANNE BLUNT and W. S. BLUNT, "The Seven Golden Odes of
Pagan Arabia" (London, 1903).

SIR WILLIAM JONES, "The Mo'allakat or Seven Arabian Poems"
(new ed., Calcutta, 1877).

F. E. JOHNSON, "The Seven Poems Suspended in the Temple at
Mecca" (Bombay, 1893).

CHARLES J. LYALL, "Ancient Arabian Poetry."

CHARLES J. LYALL, "The Diwans of ‘Abid ibn al-Abras and 'Amir ibn at-Tufail" (London, 1913).

W. A. CLOUSTON, "Arabian Poetry for English Readers" (Edinburgh).

For the Koran itself there are three standard works:

E. H. PALMER, "The Quran" (in the Sacred Books edited by Max
Müller, Oxford, 1880).

J. M. RODWELL, "The Koran."
GEORGE SALE, "The Koran."

For briefer reviews of the Koran, read

E. W. LANE, "Selections from the Kuran” (London, 1843).

S. LANE-POOLE, "Speeches and Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammed" (London, 1882).

For Mohammed himself, the best English authorities are the following:

WILLIAM MUIR, "Life of Mohammed" (four volumes, latest edition,
Edinburgh, 1912.)

D. S. MARGOLIOUTH, "Mohammed and the Rise of Islam” (London
1905).

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