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first manifested itself, was partially executed by Saul, | more completely by David, and consummated by the Simeonites in the reign of Hezekiah. And in this connection, we may remark that it must have been of importance to rid the southern frontier of a race of inveterate enemies, who seem to have been the counterpart of the incorrigible Bedouins that infest that region at the present day.

undertook to curse them, but could not; he, however, gave advice as sagacious as it was wicked, and infinitely worse than any verbal curse.

He told his employers that the Israelites would prosper, as long as they did what was pleasing to God, and that the only way to injure them was to make them disobedient and idolatrous. He therefore recommends, as most proper to effect his purpose, that they should be allured to heathenism, by the charms of Moabitish and Midianitish women. The advice was followed, even the chief men among the people not hesitating to send their very daughters on this infamous errand. The flagitious scheme succeeded but too well; the enamored Israelites found the blandishments of the beautiful idolatresses more formidable than the weapons of their men; they could not withstand their allurements to participate in the irreligious worship! Dissensions broke out in consequence their debaucheries infected them with a deadly plague, which carried off twenty-four thousand, besides those whom Moses caused to be put to death. Thus was the ruinous treason punished —a dreadful lustration, before entering the promised land.

Saul, therefore, invaded them with an army of two hundred and ten thousand men, and all were massacred, that could be taken men, women, and even infants. Their king, Agag, was a very graceful person, of noble bearing and address, and on that account we are told that his life was spared. But Samuel barbarously hewed him in pieces, publicly. The few who escaped again took possession of their devastated country, as we find them spoken of as associates of the people of Geshur and Gezer, when David threw himself on the protection of King Achish. David inflicted severe sufferings upon them; and the Amalekites, collecting together to revenge themselves, went to Ziklag, David's abode, which he had left defenceless, took it, and destroyed it by fire, sparing, however, the inhabitants. Among their captives were two of David's wives. Hastening away with their captives, the Amalekites encamp where there are water and shade; their position is betrayed to David by an Egyptian whom they left behind; meantime, careless of surprise, they give themselves up to repose and amusement. Towards the close of the day, David, from a neigh-atry, being divided among themselves, and thus weakboring height, descries them thus unprepared, and, waiting till the hour of soundest sleep, attacks them just before daybreak, and commences a furious slaughter, which lasted till sunset: not a soul of them escapes, except four hundred young men, who, mounting, on swift dromedaries flee into the depths of the desert.

Lot's posterity, the Moabites and Ammonites, rooting out the gigantic Emims, spread themselves to the eastward of the Dead Sea, which still bears, among the Arabs, the name of Lot's Sea. Thus the Ammonites occupied from the Arnon to the Jabbok, at one time, and the Moabites both sides of the Arnon. The country of the Moabites-about forty miles square was bounded south by the brook Zered, Midian, and Edom, east by the Arabian desert, north by the Ammonites, and west by the Dead Sea and Jordan. It is chiefly mountainous, having valleys of good pasturage. The Israelites were forbidden to disturb them in their possessions, notwithstanding great provocations. The Amorites, however, having taken most of the land of the Ammonites, and also all of Moab adjoining as far as the Arnon, the Israelites scrupled not to keep thus much of Moab, after they had rescued it from the Amorites, for centuries, until it was recovered by the Moabites when they overran the territories inhabited by Reuben and Gad, on the decline of the kingdom of the ten tribes.

When the Israelites, under Moses, had subdued Sihon, they pitched their camp in that part of their new acquisitions called the plains of Moab, because they had lately belonged to the Moabites. The king of Moab, dismayed at their presence, and unable to resist them, assembled the most eminent men of his nation, and also the sheikhs of the Midianites, a part of which nation dwelt in Moab; and, on consultation with them, it was deemed best to send for Balaam, a famous exorcist, to curse Israel. Balaam, after two several messages, and liberal promise of reward,

The next circumstance recorded of the Moabites, except what is indicated in the Egyptian sculptures, is, that they were the instruments of the second oppres sion of the Israelites after their settlement in Canaan. At the death of Othniel, his people, being without a leader, and probably, by the returning of many to idol

ened, were very successfully attacked by the confederated Moabites, Ammonites, and Amalekites, who seized on the eastern part of the country, and particularly on Jericho. They put garrisons into the cities to keep the people in subjection, obliged them to pay tribute, and treated them in a very tyrannical manner for a period of no less than eighteen years. From this oppression they were freed by the dagger of an assassin, which deprived them of their king, and the slaughter of ten thousand of their picked men.

"In the time of Saul, we find that monarch warred against them with success, and the enmity which consequently existed between the Moabites and Saul probably induced David, when persecuted by that prince, to ask protection for his parents of the king of Moab, until his affairs should take a better turn. This request was readily granted, and the Moabites treated his parents with great hospitality, while David was concealed in the cave of Adullam. But when David had mounted the throne, this people entered into a confederacy with several of the neighboring nations against him, whereupon he declared war; and having obtained a signal victory over them, he, with usual royal ingratitude, put two thirds of them to the sword, and compelled the remainder to become his vassals, and to pay him tribute.

"The Moabites continued from this time to be subject to David and Solomon, till the revolt of the ten tribes, when they appear to have been tributaries to the king of Israel; but they nevertheless had, all along, nominal kings of their own, who, in reality, were nothing more than viceroys. Mesha, king of the Moabites, rebelled against Åhaziah, whose short reign did not permit any attempt to subdue the Moabites. But his brother and successor, Jehoram, assisted by Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, and the king of Edom, his tributary, made an expedition for that purpose, and took a march of seven days over the


desert of Edom, in order to surprise the enemy. In the ensuing battle, the Moabites were defeated, and their cities demolished, except Kir-hareseth, in which the king of Moab shut himself up.

"But, being besieged and closely pressed, Mesha made a sally with seven hundred choice men, endeavoring to escape by breaking through the quarters of the Edomites, who were the weakest. Failing in this attempt, in the height of despair, he took his eldest son, - or, as some will have it, and with more probability, the son of the king of Edom, whom he had taken in the sally, and offered him for a burnt sacrifice upon the wall. This inhuman act, it is said, raised such commiseration, and perhaps horror, among his enemies, that they immediately abandoned the siege and returned home."

The Moabites soon attempted to revenge their losses on Jehoshaphat, by whom Jehoram had been enabled to inflict such injuries on them. They therefore strengthened themselves by an alliance with the Ammonites, and Edomites, and some other neighboring nations: thus collecting a vast army, they secretly entered Judea, probably along the south shore of the Dead Sea, and encamped at Engedi. Here, falling into their own ambushments, through mistake, and struck with panic, they destroyed each other, until none were left. They probably suffered from Uzziah, Jotham, and Salmanezer, the evils threatened them by Isaiah and Amos, the prophets. Under Nebuchadnezzar, they doubtless partook the fate of the other people of Syria. Josephus says they were a populous nation in his time; but in the third century of the Christian era, they lost their name and became included under the general designation of Arabians.

The Ammonites, descendants of Lot, destroyed the gigantic Zamzummims, and occupied their place, which fell into the possession of Moses, who divided it to Gad and Reuben. It is described with enthusiasm by travellers, as a charming country of hills, groves, valleys, and streams, presenting lovely images of pastoral beauty, and the Arab proverb extols it as incomparable.


such confusion that they made very little resistance to the Israelites, who continued to kill them till the heat of the day, when they were so completely routed and dispersed that no two of them could be seen together.

About sixty years after, on David's sending a congratulatory message to their king, Hanun, they treated his messengers with the most shameful indignity. This brought on a war: Hanun cast about for allies, and got together a vast host of Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites. Joab, David's lieutenant, was intrusted with the invading army. The Ammonites and their auxiliaries form in two bodies; Joab divides his army into two with one he attacks the allies, and with the other the Ammonites, and routs both. Next year, the Syrians, mortified at their defeat, again ally themselves with Ammon, but are defeated by David in person. Joab lays siege to Rabbah, their capital, and David takes it by storm, and wreaks terrible vengeance.

About one hundred and forty-two years after, they allied themselves again with Moab, and invaded Judah; but the allied armies quarrelled, and destroyed each other: they were long in recovering from this dreadful blow. Uzziah defeated them and rendered them tributary, but they rebelled against his son Jotham. Again defeated, they were compelled to pay one hundred talents of silver, ten thousand measures of wheat, and as many of barley, — that is, one hundred and sixty thousand bushels ; — and all this tribute for three successive years. When Reuben and Gad were carried captive, the Ammonites occupied their empty cities.*

In Zedekiah's attempt to throw off the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar, Baalis, the last king of Ammon,

The Orientals are in many respects so unchangeable, especially the nomadic tribes, that a description of the looks, dress, customs, dwellings, &c., of the present inhabitants of the country immediately east of the Sea of Galilee, the Jordan, and the Dead Sea, gives us a quite probable picture of Ammonites, Moabites, Midianites, Reubenites, and Gadites, the appearance, conveniences, habits, and costume, of the occupying the same territory, although they lived thousands of years ago.

The gown is of coarse white cotton; the head cloth is tied the abba, a long, narrow, carpet blanket, called poncho by with a rope of camel's hair. Over the shoulder they wear the Mexicans, with a longitudinal slit in the middle, to thrust the head through. The breast and feet are naked. The Bedouins are generally of short stature, with thin visage, scanty beard, and brilliant black eyes; while the Fellahs beard, and a less piercing look: to the age of sixteen, howresident cultivators - are taller and stouter, with a strong ever, both look alike.

Ammon joined Moab under Eglon, in oppressing Israel, as already noticed. About two hundred years later, we find them as principals in a war against the Israelites, under an unknown leader. This prince attempted also to recover the ancient country of the Ammonites, which had passed through the hands of the Amorites to Israel. He invaded this land, and held it in subjection many years. Encouraged by success, he crossed the Jordan, and insulted and pillaged Judah, Among the Fellahs, the richest lives like the poorest, and Benjamin, and Ephraim; returning, he aimed to displays his superior wealth only on the arrival of strangers. make a complete conquest of the whole country; atings to many of the modern inhabitants, and those who The ancient buildings afford spacious and convenient dwellthe same time,-whether with or without concert is not occupy them may have three or four rooms for each family; known, - the Philistines invaded it from the south-west. but in newly built villages, the whole family, with all its Jephthah, then judge, tried to reason with him, but in household furniture, cooking utensils, and provision chests, vain he then attacked him, near Aroer, and defeated is commonly huddled together in one apartment. Here, also, him with great slaughter, putting an end to the Am- they keep their wheat and barley in reservoirs formed of clay, five feet high and two feet in diameter. monitish tyranny.


The next of the kings of the Ammonites, that we read of, is Nahash, who lived in Saul's time. He revived the old claim, and in the beginning fought with great success. At last, he besieged Jabesh-Gilead, and it was just at the point of falling into his hands on the most barbarous conditions, namely, that the inhabitants should each lose an eye, when Saul assaulted his camp at three several points. Taken by surprise, the Ammonites were thrown instantly into

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The chief articles of furniture are, a hand mill, which is used in summer, when there is no water in the watercourses to drive the mills; some copper kettles, and a few mats; in called lebaet, used for carpets, and in winter for horse-cloths : the richer houses, we meet with some coarse woollen stuffs, real carpets or mattresses are seldom seen, except on the arrival of strangers of consequence. In the middle of the room is a fireplace to boil coffee. Their goats' hair sacks, and camp and camel equipments, are the same as those of the Bedouins. Each family has a large earthen jar, which is filled every morning, by the females, from the spring, with water for the day's consumption.



seems to have joined him; but when Jerusalem was destroyed, the Ammonites exulted over its ruin. This Baalis advised Ishmael to assassinate Gedaliah, appointed by the king of Babylon to govern the poor remnant of Jews. Ishmael did so, and Baalis, having harbored him, was punished by a Babylonian general, who wasted Ammon with fire and sword, and destroyed its famous capital, Rabbah, carrying Baalis and his chief subjects into exile.

A long time after, we find them united with the Arabians, Moabites, and Samaritans, in attempting to prevent the rebuilding of Jerusalem. Probably Cyrus had restored them, as we find them, even previous to this, subject, now to Egypt, now to Syria. Urged by ancient and implacable hatred, they also harassed the Jews when they were exposed to Antiochus Epiphanes. Under the leadership of Timotheus, their governor, they fought with Judas Maccabeus, who at last burnt their city, massacred its inhabitants, and extinguished them as a nation. Yet, in the second century of our era, we find them mentioned as a numerous people; but soon after, their name is merged in the general appellation of Arabs.

As to the Midianites, there is great uncertainty in the boundaries of their domain: we know that they dwelt east and south of Edom. Moses found them about Sinai, and one of their chief cities, called Midian, or Madian, was in the north, towards Rabbath Moab, and another, of the same name, in the south, by the Red Sea, on the eastern shore of the neck of the Gulf of Akaba. They are thought to have sprung from Abraham's fourth son; we find them early confounded with the Ishmaelites, later with the Kedarenes and Nabatheans; and, in the time of Moses, the Midianites and Moabites appear to have been almost one people, alike in religion and interests. This numerous people are early known as rovers, divided into two classes the shepherds and the merchants. The latter, as early as the time of Joseph, were engaged in the trade from Gilead to Egypt. The shepherds lived in tents, and had their cattle by them, even in war. The merchants, carriers at different epochs of the trade between the Mediterranean and India, Assyria and Egypt, moved in caravans. They left the care of their cattle to women: hence Jethro's daughters are met tending the flocks of their father. Here we find the magnanimous Moses acting again in character, as a vindicator of the oppressed, though suffering exile for his late act of patriotism and philanthropy. This Jethro, khohen, that is, " prince-priest," -a Kenite, lived in the city of Midian. "It happened that, one day, his daughters, who were seven in number, were insulted by certain shepherds. Moses, who had, a short time before, taken up his abode in the city, perceived the outrage of the shepherds, who drove the maidens and their cattle from the water they had just drawn; and, hastening to their aid, he assisted them so valiantly that they were enabled to accomplish their purpose.

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"When the maidens arrived at home, their father wondered to see them return sooner than usual; but, on inquiry, they told him of the insult they had received at the well, and how an Egyptian had protected and assisted them. Jethro instantly inquired where the chivalrous stranger was, and, blaming his daughters for being so impolite as not to bring him home with them, instantly sent them to invite their protector

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to come and refresh himself. They obeyed, and, we may be allowed to surmise, without any objection, and brought Moses to their father, who was so well pleased with the stranger, that he retained him in his family, committed to him the care of his flocks, and, in the course of time, gave to him in marriage his daughter, Zipporah." Thus, like a modern hero of romance, he becomes the lover and husband of her whom he had protected.

After this domestic picture of pastoral life, which reminds us that Arabia is the native land of chivalry, as well as of freebooting and trading, we miss the Midianites from history for half a century. They appear to have grown rich by trade, as we read of their jewels of gold, chains, bracelets, rings, earrings, tablets, or scent boxes, the purple raiment of their priestkings, and the gold chains and twisted collars around the necks of their camels. The art of writing was early familiar to them. Traces of the worship of the crescent planet Venus, or the crescent moon, are met with among them- a kind of connecting link between the early Babylonian and Canaanite idolatries, and adopted for the symbol of Islamism. The Midianites of the south seem to have had a purer theology.

The Midianites had not reason to exult over the success of the nefarious stratagem advised by Balaam, and in which they had heartily coöperated with the Moabites for Moses sent twelve thousand men against them, under command of Phinehas. They fortified their castles and collected their forces to resist, but in vain; they were defeated, and every man of them put to the sword, including Balaam, and all their towns and castles were burnt. Every person was destroyed, except thirty-two thousand virgins, who were made prisoners. The country was laid waste, and the cattle driven off, to the number of six hundred and seventy-five thousand sheep, seventy-two thousand beeves, and sixty-one thousand asses; and the spoil of gold, silver, iron, and other metals, was immense.

A century and a half later, Zeba and Zalmunna, at the head of an army of Midianites, Amalekites, and Arabians, were defeated by the stratagem of Gideon, with the trumpets and lamps; and, as frequently happens in the heterogeneous and undisciplined armies of the East, the nocturnal panic was extremely destructive, as they were of different language, and in darkness. One hundred and twenty thousand men are said to have fallen in this and a subsequent slaughter, besides those slain at the rock Oreb, so that it was called doomsday of Midian. Many ages afterwards, the tribe is noticed for its industry and wealth, and the magnificence of its tents; but in course of time, its distinctive name was merged in that of the Arabs.

We close this brief notice of these petty nations, who have long since passed away from the domain of history, with the annals of one of the most vigorous, most highly civilized, and most respectable of them all, the Philistines, inferior in attainments only to the Phoenicians and Egyptians. The Explanatory Bible Atlas gives the following summary of their annals:

"The Philistines were Misraimites,* through the

* According to Hindoo tradition, a powerful tribe, called

the Pali-Puhas, migrated from India, took possession of Arabia, as well as the coast on the west of the Red Sea, and exthink these were the ancestors of the Philistines, and find

tended themselves to the shores of the Mediterranean. Some



Casluhim, and coming from Caphtor, that is, the Nile | are not further named as a nation, except in subjecDelta, or Crete, they drove out the Avites, settling tion to the Asmonean government, as before noted, upon the southern half of that fertile plain,* alternate- we may well suppose that, with many other small ly rolling or level, which is bounded north by the tribes, they were swallowed up by the great conquerridge of Carmel, south by the desert, west by the ing nations who successively overran these regions. Mediterranean, and east by the mountains of Judah. Alexander was so enraged at the protracted defence This energetic race was under five lordships, each of Gaza, that he tied its defender, Betis, to the back with its head city, namely, Gaza, Askelon, Ashdod, of his chariot, and dragged him round the walls, in Gath, and Ekron. They were not, indeed, destined miserable imitation of the truculent exploit of Achilles, to extermination; but Joshua attacked them, though, who thus dragged the brave Hector round the walls of till David's time, they had their kings, and some of Troy. these oppressed Israel, at one time or another, for From the pictures upon the contemporary monumany years. ments of Egypt, we learn that the personal appear"David subdued them, as did Jehoram, son of Je-ance of the Philistines differed but little from that of hoshaphat, on their revolt, and Uzziah; yet, in the the Egyptians. Like them, they were tall, and well reign of Ahaz, they annoyed Judah: his son, how-proportioned, with regular features, but of a somewhat ever, subdued them, though they afterwards freed lighter complexion. They shaved both beard and themselves entirely, and became very mischievous. whiskers, and differed very conspicuously, both in They were partially conquered by Esarhaddon and arms and equipments, from all other nations east of Psammeticus, and perhaps Nebuchadnezzar; after- Egypt. wards by the Persians, and by Alexander, who destroyed Gaza. After this, they fell under the Asmonean government, which is the last we hear of them in history."

They wore a head-dress, or helmet, of a peculiar form; and their corselet was quilted with leather, or plates of metal, reaching only to the chest, and supported by shoulder straps, leaving the shoulder and the arm at full liberty. At the waist, it was confined by a girdle, from which depended a skirt, quilted like the corselet, that hung down nearly to the knee. The

afterwards used by the Greeks. Their weapons were the javelin or spear for a distant fight, and the poniard and long sword for close combat. They used war chariots of a form closely resembling those of the Egyptians, and carts and wagons of various forms, drawn by two or four oxen.

Two of the towns of the Philistines sustained famous sieges. Ashdod, afterwards called Azotus, withstood the whole force of Egypt, under Psammeticus, for the space of twenty-nine years. This is the long-shield was large and circular, exactly resembling that est siege recorded in history; but it may have been interrupted and resumed during the period-of which interruptions, however, the historian takes no notice. The Egyptians having some time before wrested it from the Philistines, had made it, by strong fortifications, their best bulwark on that side; still Sennacherib, king of Assyria, had become master of it, through Tartan, his general; and the new occupants must have defended it with vigor and perseverance. Their country having become the theatre of war between these two mighty nations, we may well infer that the Philistines were for a long period subjected to many vexations, and lost their independence.

From this time they became tributary to the great empires that succeeded each other; and we know that in the beginning of this servitude they were badly treated by the Egyptians, who, in order to form a barrier against the Assyrians, took Gaza from them. Alexander found a king at Gaza, named Betis, who was subject to the Persians; and as the Philistines

support for their opinion in the fact of the early civilization of Crete, and that Pali-sthan is shepherd-country, in Sanscrit, the ancient language of India.

Their ships of war were sailing vessels, and not galleys, like most of those belonging to the Egyptians. The rigging was a simple mast, with a watch-box at the top of it, which supported one large sail. The form of the vessel approached as nearly as possible to that of a water bird, and the figure head was that of a duck or goose.


1452 to 1426 B. C.

Invasion and Partition of Canaan.

We now return to our narrative. Joshua, the successor of Moses, to whom was assigned the office of * Professor Robinson says of this plain, covered with ruins, been introduced to the notice of the reader. As the conducting the Israelites into Palestine, has already showing its ancient populousness, "the soil of all the plain through which we passed, from Hebron to Gaza, is good; native inhabitants, on account of their crimes, were as is proved by the abundant crops of grain we saw upon it. doomed to extirpation, their place was to be occupied, The whole of this vast level tract is the property of govern- as fast as they were subdued, by their conquerors. ment, and not of the inhabitants. Whoever will may culti-The first military operation of Joshua was to send vate it, and may plough in any place not already preoccupied. But for every two yoke of oxen thus employed in tillage, he must pay to the government about thirty-five bushels of wheat, and forty bushels of barley. The peas ants, when rich enough to own oxen, plough and sow on their own account; but they frequently are the partners of merchants and others in the cities. The merchant furnishes the oxen, and the Fellah does the work; while the expenses and income are divided equally between them." We see, therefore, why the beautiful plains of Palestine and Syria are so much worse cultivated than the inferior soil upon the steeps of Lebanon: the latter is held in fee simple by its cul

tivators. In the season of verdure, the plain presents a scene of surpassing beauty and loveliness.

spies to obtain intelligence, and to survey the fortifications of Jericho, the most powerful city near the place where it was proposed to cross the Jordan. This object was effectually accomplished, and the spies returned in safety, though they had been imminently exposed to detection in prosecuting their enterprise. They owed their safety to the kindness of a woman named Rahab, who kept a caravanserai, and who secreted them in her house, so as to elude pursuit.

The entrance into the promised land was effected with suitable solemnity. The ark moved forward to



the bank of the river, and the whole army followed, at the distance of more than three quarters of a mile. The Jordan was now at its height, it being the season of the flood; but no sooner had the priests, bearing the ark, entered the stream, than the descending waters were arrested, the channel became dry, and the whole body passed in safety to the western bank. At Gilgal, they observed the fortieth passover since its first institution in Egypt. As a commemoration of their wonderful passage, a rude monument was set up, formed of twelve stones from the bed of the river. All who had not undergone circumcision were initiated, by that rite, into the national fraternity—an ordinance which had been omitted while they were in the desert.

which their strength lay, were soon rendered useless by the hands of the conqueror.

The war lasted about seven years, the latter portion of which was consumed in the reduction of the cities. During this period, the seven nations the Canaanites, properly so called, the Amorites, the Hittites, the Hivites, the Gergashites, the Perizzites, and the Jebusites -were entirely subdued, though not extirpated. Thirty-one kings had fallen under the sword. Wearied with war, the Israelites at length suspended that work of death which they were commanded to undertake, almost in the midst of their career. Too many of the dangerous, seductive Canaanites were left in the land, as the people found to their grief and disappointment, in their subsequent history. On every occasion that offered, the natives were ready to wreak their vengeance on the conquerors, and they were perown impure and idolatrous rites. The two great concerns to which the attention of the Israelites was called, after the conquest, were, first, the solemn recognition of the Lord as king, and swearing allegiance to the constitution, on Mounts Ebal and Gerizim, according to the last instructions of Moses; and next, the survey and partition of the land, with the location of the several tribes.

At the time of the Jewish invasion, Palestine was governed by a multitude of petty kings, who seemed to be, in a great measure, independent of one another. They lived in their walled cities, and, with their sub-petually engaged in alluring the chosen race to their jects, passed their time in sensuality, in idolatrous observances, and doubtless in collisions one with another. The Canaanites are supposed, upon the increase of their families, to have possessed themselves of the Arabian side of Egypt, and there to have erected a kingdom coeval with that of Misraim; but the beginning of their history is extremely dubious. The general denomination of Canaanites included seven nations, as described in the preceding chapter. In tracing the separate portions into which the counOn the approach of the Israelites, they at first entry was divided, so as to accommodate each of the tered into no league to oppose the common enemy; twelve tribes, we may begin with the trans-Jordanic each kingdom or city was left to make the best de- possessions. Of these, the River Arnon, which sepafence in its power. Jericho was first attacked by the rated the land of the Hebrews from that of Moab, was invaders. It fell in a manner which attested a super- the southern boundary. Here the tribe of Reuben natural agency. The ark having been carried around received their allotment-the northern bank of the it for six successive days, on the seventh, as this mys- Arnon up to Aroer. It embraced a large portion of terious circuit was repeated, the walls of the city were the valley of the Jordan, and had, for its principal thrown down, at the sound of the priests' trumpet, and cities, Heshbon, Eleale, and Sibmah, celebrated for the united shout of the army. The inhabitants were their vines. To this day, the superiority of the pastuall put to the sword, except Rahab, who had sheltered rage of this district renders it an object of fierce conthe spies, and her family. The capture and destruc- test among the Arabs. tion of Ai soon followed this event. At this juncture, the kings of Canaan combined against the invaders, with the exception of the Gibeonites, who craftily contrived to save their own lives by making a league with Joshua. The treaty was held sacred, the lives of the Gibeonites were spared; but they were at length deputed to the servile offices of the house of God.

The league which was formed included the southern princes of the Amoritish race, five in number, headed by Adonibezek, king of Jerusalem. When they heard that Gibeon had fallen off, they at once attacked it; but, through the assistance of Joshua, the place was saved, and the enemy, moreover, signally discomfited, while a tremendous hail-storm increased the panic and destruction of their flight. After this victory, the conquest of the country was rapid and easy. The five kings had fled for refuge to a cave, from which they were taken and put to death. City after city fell tribe after tribe was exterminated. The Jewish commander returned to Gilgal, having completed the subjugation of the south as far as Gaza, with the exception of some of the strong fortresses. But the north, in its turn, was to come under the rule of a foreign sovereignty, to be established in their flourishing cities and towns. The chieftains of this part of Palestine organized a powerful confederacy against Israel; but Joshua fell suddenly upon them, and vanquished them in a single battle. The cavalry and chariots, in

The tribe of Gad was placed to the north of the Reubenites. Their land was on both sides of the Jabbok, - the modern Zurka, — but how far south it is difficult to determine. It contained all the east side of the valley of the Jordan, up to the point of the Sea of Genesareth, and the southern part of the mountain range called Gilead. It abounds in the most romantic scenery, and Gilead was celebrated for its goats and for its flocks generally.

The half tribe of Manasseh was settled north of Gad. It occupied the eastern shore of the Lake of Genesareth, the whole of Bashan, famous for its cattle, and probably some part of the cultivated lands of the ancient Auranitis, now El Ledjah.

Passing into Canaan proper, we find part of the tribe of Dan stationed on the most northern point, at the foot of Lebanon and Hermon, and near the source of the Jordan. This portion of the tribe, finding themselves straitened in their quarters in South Canaan, removed, and took the town of Laish, which assumed the name of their tribe.

Contiguous to Dan was the tribe of Naphtali, its possessions probably extending up into the valleys of the Anti-Libanus, or Hermon.

The allotment of Asher was a long and narrow slip of land on the sea-coast, from the frontiers of Sidon, all around the Bay of Ptolemais, excepting where it was interrupted by a part of the territory of Zebulon, as far as Carmel. It included the mountain

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