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It is supposed that Hafiz was married.

In Odes 13 and 90, he deplores the departure of his beloved for a while from his dwelling; and in Ode 227 bewails in pathetic strain her loss by death.

In Ode 117, and in Kit'at 598, 606, he bewails the loss of his sons.

14. Although Sulṭān Aḥmad-i-İlkhānīt (d. 1410) was a king, he was a skill-cherisher. He was skilled in painting, in bow-bending, in arrow-casting; and used to compose verse in Arabic and in Persian; and to write with six pens (in six languages). In music he was skilled; and therein composed much. Khwāja 'Adur-l-Kadir was his attendant and (some say) his pupil.

Nevertheless he was a man of blood and creditless; he used to eat opium and thereby made his brain dry. Guiltless, he made despicable the true man; and, on small account, made great the despicable.

Therefore his subjects abhorred him; and his chiefs used to write to Timur-iLang, who, for overthrowing him, was at last induced to lead an army.

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For every trifling work, trouble, endure we-why?

Sea and mountain, we pass and abandon ;

Like the (mighty) Simurgh, overland and sea, our feathers we shed.

To desire, the foot on the sphere's summit, let us place;

Or, like men, our head intent on resolution, place.

When Timur learned this, he bewailed saying:

"Would to God that I could compose verse and in verse reply. Perchance among my sons and family, is one who can do so."

The lot they cast on Mirān Shāh Mirzā ; and on Khalil Sulṭān Bahādūr, who thus replied:

Beneath time's violence, thy neck place, and head stir not;

The great work, trifling, 'tis impossible to regard.

Though like the (mighty) ṣimurgh, thou attemptest (to scale) the (lofty) mountain of Kaf,
Like the little sparrow, be; and down thy wings and feathers shed.

Out from thy brain, the vain fancy cast;

So that, into the skull-pan of thy head, there go not a hundred thousand heads (of spears).

Upon reading this, Sultan Aḥmad fled to Rūm.

* See Bicknell's Selections, pp. 108, 286, 292.

† From Daulat Shāh.

15. Sultan Mahmud Shah Bahmani, King of the Dakan,* was learned in the arts

and in Persian and Arabic; and a patron of literary merit.

Poets of Persia and Arabia, on presenting a poem at his court, were rewarded with a thousand pieces of gold; and after a while, laden with gifts, sent to their native land.

Hafiz desired to visit the King; but had no money to do so. On hearing this, Mir Fazlu-l-lāh Anju (the King's Vazir) sent money; and entreated him to come to his master's court.

Hafiz accepted the invitation, giving a part of the money to his creditors; part to his sister's children; and, with the rest, furnishing himself. On reaching Lāhūr, he met an acquaintance, robbed by bandits; to him, he gave all he had. Thus, he was prevented from proceeding farther. But two Persian merchants† returning to Persia whom he met offered to pay his expenses for the pleasure of his society. They took him to Hurmuz (Persian Gulf), where he embarked on a ship sent him by Sultan Maḥmūd.

Before the anchor was weighed, there arose a great storm which affrighted Ḥāfiz and made him give up all thoughts of visiting the Dakan.

Promising an early return, he quitted the ship; and through a friend on board sent to Mir Fazlu-l-lāh :

To pass life a single moment in grief, a world altogether

For wine, sell our ragged religious garment; for more than this it-
At first, in hope of profit, easy appeared the toil of the sea;
A mistake, I made; for a hundred jewels this great deluge (the ocean)-
The pomp of the imperial crown,-whose grandeur is fear of life,
Is verily a heart-alluring crown; but the abandoning of one's life-

is not worth ; is not worth.

is not worth.

is not worth.

Ode 142, c. 1, 6, 7.

On receiving these lines, Mir Fazlu-l-lāh informed the King, who (through Mulla Muḥammad Ķāsim of Mashhad) sent Hafiz a thousand pieces of gold simply for his attempt to see him.

16. In 1357, Mubarizu-d-Din Muḥammad Muzaffar put to death Shāh Shaikh Isḥāk, Governor of Shiraz, patron to Hafiz.

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In 1359, Shah Shuja'* put out the eyes of his father, Muḥammad Muzaffar, and became Ruler of Shiraz. He regarded Hafiz with hate on account of his poetic genius.

Happening to see Ode 525, wherein was a couplet expressing disbelief in a future state, he cited Hafiz before the 'Ulama of Shiraz.

Warned of the plot, Ḥāfiz wrote, above the un-orthodox couplet, a new couplet, whereby he put the words into the mouth of a Christian. Thus, he saved himself punishment (death); and induced all to condemn Shah Shujā' for making an unjust accusation.

How pleasantly to me came these words which in the morning said

At the door of the wine-house with drum and reed, a Christian :-
"If the being a Musalman be of this sort that Ḥāfiz is,
"Alas if, after to-day, be—a to-morrow."

Ode 525, c. 9, 10.

17. In 1369, Ghiyāṣu-d-Din Pūrabi, King of Bangāla, invited Ḥāfiz to visit him; but could not induce him to do so.

Regarding Ḥāfiz and this King, is a pleasing story in Ode 158, whereto the reader is referred.

18. Rizā Ķuli says that Hafiz wrote a commentary on the Ķuran; and, that many of the odes ascribed to him were written by Salman Sāvajit (d. 1377).

19. In 1392, Timūr-i-Lang‡-i-Gūrakān Ṣāḥib-i-Ķirān (b. 1336, d. 1405) having subdued Fars and slain Shah Manṣur, King of 'Irāk and Fārs, ordered Hafiz to be brought before him, and said :

Although, with the flash of my flashing sword, to make prosperous Samarkand and Bukhārā which are of my native land and place of rest, I have subdued the inhabited fourth part of the world; and laid waste a thousand prosperous places and dominions, -thou, pitiful one, wouldest sell and give Samarkand and Bukhārā for a dark mole ! §

Kissing the ground, Hafiz said:


"O Sultan of the world! through this way of giving, it is that to this (disastrous) day

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§ Timur referred to Ode 8, wherein Ḥāfiz offers Samarkand and Bukhārā for the beloved's dark mole.

To the Sahib-Kirān, pleasing came this reply. Him, he approved and reproved not. Nay, he kindly treated him; * invited him to Samarkand; and reproached him for not making his capital the subject of sweet song.

It is said that an envious poet suggested this interview, in the hope that Ḥāfiz might become a victim to his machinations.

Hafiz's good sense and pleasing replies averted the blow.

20. The following passages may be noted:

Ode 13, c. 1; 322; 381, and 340, wherein he expresses his love for Shiraz.

Ode 442, which he wrote in 1387 when Timur invaded Persia.

Ode 499, c. 11, and the Sāķi-Nāma, 686, c. 134, wherein he eulogises Shaikh Nizāmi-i-Ganjavi.

The Mukhammas, 693, c. 10, wherein he states that men will visit his tomb.

Odes 155, c. 3, 535, c. 11, wherein is shown that his fame had reached to Samarkand and to Bangāla.

Odes 179, c. 6, 359, c. 3, 371, c. 1, and 374, c. 5, wherein he states that, by effort, none can become a lover of God.

Ode 408, c. 5, wherein he says:

"In the midst, behold not thou the monastery and the tavern (of love for God);
"God is witness,-where-He is, with Him I am."

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* Unfortunately for the authenticity of this tale (by Daulat Shah), it is said :

(a) that Timur took Shiraz, and saw Hafiz, in 1392.

(b) that (by the slab on his tomb) Hafiz died in 1391.

The date of Timur's interview is :

(a) by Daulat Shāh, 1392.

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The kit'a* whereby the date (791 A. H.) of his death is determined is :—

که شمعی بود از نور تجلی چراغ اهل معنی خواجه حافظ

بجو تاریخش از خاک مصلی چو در خاک مصلی یافت منزل

This kit'a will be found at the end of the ruba'iyāt of all the bāzār Persian texts; its translation in a foot-note under Òde 439.

22. Some of the verses of Hafiz being considered impious, the 'Ulamā of Shirāz refused, after his death, to utter the funeral prayers over his body.

Finally, it was settled that scattered couplets from his odes, written on slips of paper, should be placed in a vessel, and taken out therefrom by a child; and that, thus, the dispute should be decided.

The verse drawn was:

From the bier of Ḥafiz thy foot withdraw not;

For, though immersed in sin, he goeth to paradise.

Ode 60, c. 7

Shouting with joy Hafiz's friends took up the bier; and all joined in following . it to the tomb.t

23. He is buried at a spot two miles north-east of Shiraz in the centre of a small cemetery, whereof the rest is laid out as a flower-garden with an avenue of cypress trees of great size and age.

The tomb of Ḥāfiz, is placed at the foot of one of the cypress trees which he himself planted. The cemetery is separated from the garden by an ornamental wall with a central portico.

This site is called the Hafiziya.

Soon after the taking of Shiraz (1452) by Sulṭān Abū-l-Ķāsim Bābar, his Vazir, Maulana Muḥammad Mu'ammãi erected over the grave of Hafiz a handsome


In 1811 (circa), the Vakil Karim Khan Zand placed, over the tomb, a slab of alabaster‡ (from Marāghah Āzarbījān) sculptured (in bas relief in nastalik character) with the lines set forth in Ode 439.

* The author of the kit'a is unknown.

This is the version by Shir Khān Lūdi.

By the Calcutta Review (p. 406), 1856—

"Before a person whose eyes were blind-folded, the divān was placed and opened. Seven leaves back from the place of opening being counted, the finger pointed to this verse in the text." As Hafiz predicted in Kit'a 693, c. 10, his tomb is now a place of pilgrimage.

Charles Stewart (p. 64) says that Hafiz was buried with much pomp.

Morier (p. 104) calls it marble in colour,-a combination of greens, streaked with blue and red veins.


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