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Of these translations

i. (a) and (b) are valueless.

ii. (c) is in prose, and is apparently taken from the German translation by Rosenzweig. There are no explanations of any importance; no ṣufistic renderings.

iii. (d) is in verse; and therefore valueless to the student. There are no explanations of any importance; and no ṣūfïistic renderings.

13. In this translation, in the note on sufi,ism, in interpolations in the text, and in foot-notes, much sufïistic information is given.

Sometimes, to save space and expense, words necessary for the understanding of a passage have been inserted in the couplet. Such words are invariably inclosed in brackets, and come after the word (or the sentence) that requires amplification or explanation.

The student can see at a glance what is the literal rendering and what is the explanation.

14. The forms of verse may now briefly be described :

(a) Jje (ghazal).

This is a love poem, consisting of from five to fifteen verses; any metre except the ruba'i metres may be used; the same rhyme goes through the whole poem; the first hemistich of the first verse rhymes with the second hemistich of the same verse. The poem must be finished, without defects in rhyme, and pure in language, all obsolete words, or vulgar expressions being avoided. Each verse must convey a complete thought. The verses are strung like pearls on a thread, which makes them a necklace, the value whereof lies in the value of each pearl, not in the thread. If two or more. verses belong in sense to each other, they are called — mukatta

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In the makta' the poet introduces his (takhallus.)

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This poem is written in praise of some one and should contain not less than thirteen distichs and not more than a hundred and twenty.*

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* Some say not less than 31 nor more than 99 distichs: and, again, some say without limit.

iii.guriz, the flight for the introduction to the object of praise.

iv. b makta',,, end.

This kind of poem is read in the presence of him in whose honour it is composed; and therefore should not be so long as to weary him.

In other respects this poem resembles the ghazal.

.(kita) قطعه (c)

This must consist of at least two verses.

A kit'a is :

i. ghazal, or a kasida, in which the first verse is omitted, or in which the two hemistichs of the first verse do not rhyme.

ii. a portion (two verses at least) taken from the middle of a ghazal or a kaṣida. It has no matla', and can be composed in any metre, the ruba'i metres excepted.

(d) ↳ (rubā’ī).

This is a poem, tetrastic, of four hemistichs, whereof the first, second, and fourth rhyme. The first three hemistichs introduce the happy thought; the fourth hemistich is :

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This

poem is composed in metres called rubā'î metres;

The (dubaiti), quatrain, is never composed in the ruba'i metres.

.(masnavi) مثنوي

This poem is a ballad, a romance, an epic. Each hemistich rhymes with its fellow; but the same rhyme does not go through the whole poem, and freedom (in style and in rhyme) is allowed.

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The takhallus is the name which the poet assumes. It is taken:

(a) from the name of the Ruler of the time, or from the Patron.

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The takhallus is expressed in four different ways:

(a) Shamsu-d-Din Muḥammad-i-Hafiz.

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Hafiz.

Mutakhalls bt Hafiz.

(b)

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(d)

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16. In June 1889, the Government of India gave its sanction to the printing, at my expense, of this translation of the Dīvān-i-Hafiz at its Central Press, Calcutta.

The printer's work of this translation is, therefore, the work of an Indian Press; and is, I consider, a creditable piece of such work.

My thanks are cordially given to Mr. Dean, the Superintendent, and to Mr. A. Sanderson, the Deputy Superintendent, of the Press, for the trouble and the care that they took to carry out their part of the work.

To special notice I wish to bring Maulavi Mirzā Muḥammad-i-Biṣrāvī, a Persian, who rendered me great help in this work. To him, my thanks are heartily given.

17. The Board of Examiners, Oriental languages, under the Government of India, is simply an examining body; but it might well be more.

It should be the guide, the friend, the counsellor of students of oriental literature; should advise and assist in respect of native instructors, of books, and of modes of learning; and should keep a list of native instructors of approved excellence, fixing their fees, and punishing them for indolence and negligence.

For the acquirement of oriental languages, systematic training is required, more leisure, and more encouragement.

For want of direction, many a student wastes valuable time, explores paths already explored; and surmounts difficulties already smoothed. He intolerably suffers from the indolence, the inertia, and the trouble-giving power of the Munshi, over whom he has no control.

So great and many are the difficulties, that many an energetic man considers as a waste of time the time spent in preparation for a language-examination.

18. Full well I know that grave defects must have their place in a work so long and so arduous as this. All endeavours to translate a Persian poem into another language must fall short of their aim when the obligation is imposed of producing a translation that shall be at once literal, idiomatic, and faithful to each thought of the original. Of my faults, I am very sensible, but I doubt not that those who discern them and know the difficulty of the undertaking will give me fair quarter.

The translation was made in a tropical country, in leisure moments, amidst the pressure and the stress of professional duties most exacting; and under special circumstances of harass and worry that it is not permissible to describe,

* See Letter No. 2907, 12th June 1889, from the Government of India, Finance Department.

19. Mr. H. M. Clarke, to whom this work is dedicated, was a son of the late William Stanley Clarke, Elder Brother of Trinity House, who for twentyseven years (1815-1842) was a Director, East India Company; and in 1835-36 its Chairman.*

He was educated at Winchester and at Haileybury, where he won the gold medal for Persian; in April 1826 he joined the Bengal Civil Service; and, after serving in China, retired in (or about) 1843.†

In 1875, "the Persian Manual," published under my name, was dedicated to him. In January 1889, he accepted the dedication of this work, in which he was much interested; but the completion of which he was not allowed to see; for on the 11th June 1889, at Bexhill Rectory, at the advanced age of 84 years, he died.

He was the kindest, the most unselfish, and the most generous of men; and the most worthless I should indeed be, did I not lament him with a lamentation that is not to be expressed in words.

Those who knew him will be grateful for these few words calling him to mind; those who knew him not will perchance of their courtesy pardon me for their expression.

H. WILBERFORCE CLARKE,

CALCUTTA:
January 1891.

See Alphabetical List (1839), Bengal Civil Service, 1780-1838.

† See

(a) The above-named List.

(b) Smith and Co.'s Bengal Directory and Quarterly Register (Hurkaru Press), Calcutta, for

1836 (pp. 3 and 36) and 1840 (p. 43).

(c) Scott and Co.'s Bengal Directory and Register, Calcutta, for 1842 (pp. 2 and 21) and 1843

(p. 20).

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