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(Whilst thou art in the world) strive in the pleasure (of zikr va fikr) of the present. As, when no water remained,

"Adam let go the garden of the house of safety (Paradise)."

At time's banquet, enjoy one or two cups (moments of union with the true Beloved); and go (to eternity):

(Here) verily desire not perpetual union (for 'tis vain).

All lovers have passed their time in consuming and burning; and gained not the jewel of their desire. Without essence (zāt) was what they beheld; yet in their knowledge they regarded it as the essence of essence.

The Sultan of Arifs, Shaikh Bayizid-i-Bistāmi (b. 777, d. 878 A.D.) saith:

"With the foot of understanding, I have run-thirty years in unity (waḥdāniyat) and thirty
years in singularity (fardāniyat); yet I have not reached the Desired One (God).
"When I looked well I knew that whatever I had seen I was all."

Some render this passage:

"I worshipped thirty years in adoration (ma'būdiyat); thirty years in divinity (ulūhiyat); and thirty years in divine knowledge (maʼrifat)

For further information see:

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(a) History (Circumstances of Abu-l-Baķā 'Abdu-l-lah) by Ibn Khallikān (b. 1138, d. 1211 A.D.)

(b) Wilberforce Clarke's translation of the Būstān of Sa'di, Introduction, 18.

(c) Garcin de Jassy's translation of the Mantiku-t-Tair.

'Aish-i-nakd signifies :

The present, existing, state.

O heart! listen to the discovery of state (hal); cast not today's work to tomorrow; for when
life's time is ended,-s
-save regret naught will fall to the hand.

The world itself is a place fit for passing away,-not the stage, fit for keeping.

When his time was ended, Ādam did a good work, when he let go Paradise.

Whatever cometh forth from the hand, it is necessary that thou give not thyself to the Path of negligence.

After being himself directed in the true Path, Hafiz seeketh guidance for his old friends; and, by way of compassion and mercy, saith:

O traveller in the path of love! if, in that path, the manifestations of divine evidence display splendour, advance thy foot rejoicing for one or two moments; immoveable be not centered ever urge forward.

That is :

In the path, the holy traveller hath endless delights and many (glorious) manifestations that (for trying his heart) come before him and appear the barrier of his path.

If to them, he turn; and keep back from the Path, the enemy (Shaiṭān) exclaimeth :"Ruin in this world and in the next!"

If turning not to them, he advanceth like a man, (on his ear) fall the words :"Entrance into loftier degrees are intended for thee.



In the travelling of the Path, the holy traveller never ceaseth, for the glories of the qualities. of God are limitless; and momently and hourly bring forth splendour of a different hue; and keep fascinated the holy traveller.

Displaying great spirit, it is necessary that the traveller should not give his heart to them; and, striking on each one the stone of -" the pelting of non-acceptance."


5. O heart! youth's vigour hath departed; and, from life, thou hast not plucked a single rose (of true love, or of divine grace):

Elderly of head, show skill (in permanence) of name and fame (in supplication and lamentation to God).

Of profligates intoxicated (with excess of love for God) as the mystery (unutterable and hidden) within the veil ;

For, this state (wherein they utter mysteries) is not the zahid's, lofty of degree.

and bringing forth the light of :-"I like not stone pelters" (see the Ķurān iii, 36; xv, 34; xxxvi, 78).

should advance.

5. The holy Hadis saith :

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(a) bikhudi (senselessness); they utter mysteries, having no restraining power.

(b) zabt (restraint), they utter no mysteries.

Rind (profligate) signifies :

One who, having escaped from outward adornment, is joined to the Prophet of the inward (the conscience).

Mast (intoxicated) signifies:

One intoxicated with manifestations, and attracted by revelations, whose stage is :—

"Who knoweth God, his tongue is long."

Zahid-i-ali maķām signifies :

That zahid, outward worshipper, who is called lofty of state because he sitteth on the seat by which the centre of all stages is closed.

To the zahid (ṣūfi) traveller, with whom in the beginning of state, he associated, Hafiz kindly speaketh :

O Ṣufi, outward worshipper, wherefore placeth thou thy heart on the decoration of the wall? Why art thou fallen? Come; for the murshid's mind is possessed of purity and is the giver of purity,-as long as thou beholdest the purity of the love of affection, which is both ruddy (joyous) and the giver of the ruddy face.

That is :

Enter upon the path of our murshid, so that thou mayest snatch the delight of love (of which thou art a
denier), and come back from the denial of that thou hast, and sing not the melody of the deniers.
The mysteries that are within the veil, ask of profligates. For this state is not the zahid's, of lofty

O seeker! desist not from the discovery of this meaning; for he is only the murshid
pers. Having fixed his own heart on the wall-picture, he remaineth void

Possibly ali makām is directly the adjective to zahid.

f the outward worship

knowledge of inward

On our part, at thy threshold, many are thy rights of service.

O Sir! again, in pity, look upon thy slave (who, at least, hath not quitted thy threshold).

I gave up wish for ease at that time when

This heart placed its reins (of control) in the hand of Thy love.

The disciple of the cup of Jamshid is Hafiz. O breeze, go:

And give salutation from the slave to the Shaikh of Jām.

The mysteries within the veil, ask of Lovers, intoxicated and distraught; and of 'Ārifs, knowing the hidden and instructed. For they are seated¡in the stage

"Who knoweth God, his tongue is long,"

and are not closed of tongue, mystery uttering.

From them, thou wilt obtain healing; sincere words; and heart consolation. The stage of explanation of inward mysteries is not the zahid's (ṣufi's) of lofty stage; for he having come from inebriety to sobriety is the same as outward worshippers.

Although he knoweth inward mysteries yet he concealeth them since no permission is his to utter them.

When he hath reached the stage

"Who knoweth God, his tongue is dumb"

And tasted the sweetness of perfect power, he will not explain,-save by enigma and hint, not by words and examples.

9. To great ones, who, like the intoxicating cup of wine, are of the number of the true seekers,— Hafiz revealeth his desire.

Jām (cup) may signify :

The wine of love and of divine knowledge.

Whenever an 'Arif appeareth, give him our salutation, that into his heart we may pass, and become sharers of whatever is in his heart.

Jām is the name of a town near Herat (Hari) in Khurāsān.

The Shaikh of Jām was Shaikh Aḥmad Namaki, a friend of Ḥäfiz.

5, (13).

1. O Sāķi (murshid) ! arise; and give the cup (of wine of desire): Strew dust on the head of the grief of time.

In my palm, place the cup of wine so that, from my breast,

I may pluck off this patched garment of blue colour.

Although in the opinion of the (apparently) wise,—ill-fame is ours,
Not name nor fame, do we (distraught with love for God) desire.

Give wine! with this wind of pride, how long,

Dust on the head of useless desire?

5. The smoke of the sigh of my burning heart


Consumed these immature ones (hypocrites; fathers of lust).

(the darvish habit of blue colour) signifies :

(a) the elemental body, the garment of the human soul, the prohibitor and hinderer of our union with God.

(b) the existence of borrowed existence (this life).

(cup) signifies:

(a) God's message which the angel of death conveyeth to the people of God, and by which he hasteneth them thither, so that, joyfully, quitting their body, they pass over to God;

(b) the heart of a pure one, fit for divine manifestations.

According to (a) :—

To the true Beloved, Hafiz representeth his desire saying:

By the usage of lovely ones and longing ones,-send thy message (of death) so that I may gain release from the body, and hasten to my Object (God).

According to (b) : —

To the Sāķi and murshid, Ḥāfiz representeth his desire saying:

O murshid !with the wine of love of purity, give the cup of love to my hand (heart), that it may become fit for revelations and manifestations; that, from off my head, I may pull this patched garment of blue colour, and also this borrowed existence; and, that I may enter upon effacement and non-existence, the means of eternal existence, and the source of lasting joy.

By the first meaning, death is desired; by the second, effacement.

Both are the desired of the desirer.

The patched garment is the garment of hypocrisy.

Hafiz used this expression to cast ridicule upon the darvishes of the order of Shaikh Hasan, who were hostile to the darvishes of the order of Maḥmūd 'Attar, to which order he be longed.

Of the secret (of love) of my distraught heart,—a friend,
Among high and low,-none, I see.

Glad is my heart with a heart's ease (a lovely one),

Who, from my heart, once took ease.

At the cypress in the sward, again looketh not

That one, who beheld that cypress of silvern limb.

Ḥāfiz! day and night, be patient, in adversity:

So that, in the end, thou mayst, one day, gain thy desire.

9. This couplet answereth couplet 2.

Hafiz ! patiently endure, day and night, trouble and oppression on account of the vehemence of opposition of lust and of desire.

Ever be patient; and scratch not complaint and lamentation into thy heart.

For, in the end, one day, thou wilt gain the treasure of thy purpose.

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