Page images

Then the seeker, to whom this hath happened, explaineth his own pain; and, for the sake of caution, taketh, from the perfection of eloquence, oath by something dearer than which cannot be imag. ined.

Nāfa (musk-pod) signifies:

The message which, through exceeding kindness, the Eternal One sendeth to heart-wounded longing


When the Angel of Death ('Izrā il; Murdād) causeth that message to reach them, they, joyously and gladly, leave their bodily form, and hasten to their desire (union with God).

Even so (Ode 30, couplet 1) Hafiz saith.

būyi nāfa (smell of musk) signifies :

The taste of that message, whose fruit is exceeding joy and perfect pleasure.

ṣabā (breeze) signifies :

(a) A breeze, whereto they attribute the bringing of sweet odours, and whereat they become happy.
(b) The Angel of Death by whom union with the Beloved (God) is attained.

turra (fore-lock) signifies:

The attraction of God's mercy, that, from exceeding grace, draweth the longing ones.

ju'd-i-mushkin (musky-twisted hair) signifies:

The confusion of the seeker's heart when the darkness of the vicissitudes (of time) hath its own way in his heart; and alloweth him not to reach his object.

ash (in mushkinash) refers to :-turra. Hence :

By the taste and the sweetness of that message, the arriving of which is attributed to the morning breeze (the Angel of Death), and desired by all, whose attraction will at last draw to itself the seekers and make them honoured with this fortune, I swear-that much blood (of grief) hath (from the twist of His tress's musky curl, and from the vicissitude of the world of ill nature) fallen upon hearts (of the lovers of God and given them to the wind (of destruction)!

[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

tāb-i-ju'd-i-mushkin may signify :

The twist of the words of the Kuran that puts into twist and torment seekers of its meaning.
Hence :-

By the meanings of the Kuran-i-Majid (the glorious Ķurān), and by the apparent words of the Furkan-iḤamid (the honourable discriminator) from whose interior, divine inspiration at last draweth holy men, and showeth them the Path, (I swear). -that much blood (of grief) hath from the twist of its letters) fallen upon hearts (of the lovers of God) and given them to the wind (of destruction). By the perception of reason, and by the consideration of thought, the profundity of the meaning of the Kuran is not to be comprehended; and, without divine inspiration, thither none carrieth his foot (of thought).

To the Lords of eloquence and of knowledge, and to the Companions of delight, it is not concealed that since the verse of Hafiz (who is of the Taba'-i-Tabi'in of Muḥammad is at such a stage that its hidden meaning cannot, save by divine inspiration, be reached; and that it hath such eloquence as to bring the reader into astonishment,then at what a lofty stage, will be the internal meaning of divine words; and, at what a stage, will rest the seeker's heart.

Great may God make the eloquence and the nature of him who, thus, with grace of way and of place, explaineth the subtleties of Hafiz!

[blocks in formation]

Existence of God (Wujud), whose discovery is the object of holy men. On account of the difficulty of dis covering this existence, all are distressed.

Muḥammad saith:

"Better had it been if the God of Muḥammad had not created Muḥammad (the origin of the human

Because Muḥammad could not acquire the (perfect) knowledge of God, due to God.
Taking bi, we have:-

By the message, which they cause to arrive from the Desired (God) to the desirer (the holy traveller); and by
which they hasten the soul of the seeker, (I swear) much blood (of grief) hath, from the clayey existence
(man), without union with the lofty Friend (God), fallen upon the hearts of lovers (of God); and given
to the wind the chattels of existence.

Couplet 3.

With the wine of the love of God becolour thy body, thy heart, thy soul; (follow in thy movings restings, thinkings) the perfect murshid; and thus attain perfection.

If the murshid instruct thee, and draw thee into the place of colouring, hasten not in advance of his instruction; make not lustreless thy own respect; exhibit not a work of thyself; and accept with heart and soul, his counsel. For he is a holy traveller; and the holy traveller is not void of knowledge of the way and the usage of the stages (to God).

O distraught one! till the arriving of that time, stand of thyself (without help of others save the murshid).

Of the Companions, God said :

"If they wait patiently till thou (Muḥammad) come forth to them,-better it will be for them." Kuran, xlix, 5.

The existence of the murshid in the crowd of disciples (muridān; mustarshidān) is as the pure existence of Muḥammad among the exalted Companions.

The number of letters in :

sajjāda (prayer-mat)
mai (wine)




From it, we take (derive) a name of the names of God that, numerically, is equal to this number and suitable to this place.

That name is :

Habibul-l-avvabin, "the Friend of those coming back," and its numerical value is 123.

O seeker! be adorned with "the Friend of those coming back" (Gcd); scratch not thy heart with love for
those exterior to God; and turn back with fervour. For, the Friend hath turned back; and for the people
of the world, His love is brain (full of value), and the rest only skin (empty of value).
Enter into the delight of manifestations of Him; come out from the desire of lust.

Couplet 4.

In the stage (this world) to the Beloved (God),-mine what safety, what pleasure, what room for arranging the road provisions (to the next world),—when, momently, the bell of the Angel of Death soundeth :

"Bind ye up your burdens; set ye out for the next stage (the next world)! "

And clangeth:

JJ Ar Raḥil! Ar Raḥil! Depart! Depart!

The custom of the people of a kārvān is this :

At the time of marching, they strike the bells; and set the camels roaring and bellowing; and make the travellers acquainted with the time of marching, so that they may cast off sleep and fit up, the bridles.

A great poet saith :

Daily, an Angel of God crieth out :

"Give birth for the sake of death; build up for the sake of pulling down!"

But, from exceeding carelessness, our ears have become heavy; and as regards the hearing of that cry, the servant of the deaf.

Manzil is the stage of acquiring knowledge of God, and of inclining to Him.

God sent us from non-existence (in the loosening world) to existence in the binding world)—for the sake of acquiring knowledge of Him, and of the stages to Him, glorious and great. Of this divine knowledge, he hath informed us by the Prophets.

Couplet 7.

7. Mata is conditional and meaneth time. The word mā (after matā is redundant; its addition befitteth the language of eloquent and learned men.

talka is the second person, future, active from lakiya yalķā, to make an interview.

Man is the relative pronoun (mauṣūl).

Tahva is the conjunctive particle (silah).

Da' is the imperative particle (amr).

In a conditional sentence, whenever there is—

order, prohibition, or jumla ismiya, it is proper to prefix fã, to the requital of the condition. If the requital precede the condition, fã may be omitted.

Here, the exigency of verse compels the omission of fã, which otherwise should precede da'.
The second line should be :-

Da', í-d-dunyā matā mā talķa man tahvā va ahmilhā.

For mā talka it would be better to write :—

aradta mulāķāta. (When thou intendest to make an interview).

So in the Kuran 11, 7, we have :

"O ye Faithful! When ye rise up for prayers: (That is, when ye intend to rise up for prayer.)"

If we say that this couplet is uttered in the state of union (with God), "If thou wish to remain present (with God) ever be not absent,"

the connection with the second line is good.

In ḥuzūri, the yā, e ma' rūf is redundant as in-salāmati, ziyādati.

Some say that the world is :

(a) ḥazūri with fatha of the form of excess (comparative degree), and with yā, i-maşdar.

This hazuri, they call the maṣdar-i-ja'li.

(b) hazūri with ya-i-tankir (the definite yā).

- signifies غایب شدن

Carelessness of zikr (repetition of God's name), and of shughi (occupation).

If thou seek the presence of the Friend (God), be not a moment careless of Him; scratch not thy heart for the world's reproach; and when thou desirest an interview -with Him, whom thou lovest, and to whom thou turnest,-abandon the world, and let it go.

We should have-first abandonment of the world; then, the interview with the Beloved.

But we actually have the reverse.

When, through attraction, an interview (with the Friend, God) is gained,-abandon the world and whatever may be contrary to the permanency of that state, so that it (the state of interview) may not be lost.

2, (2).

1. O (true Beloved)! the splendour of the moon-beauty (the illusory beloved is) from the illumined face of

The lustre of beauteousness from the chin-dimple of ——


O Lord! when these desires (of union with Thee), that are our companions appear,

Collected will be the heart of ours; and dishevelled the trees of


My soul at the lip (ready to depart in death) desireth the sight of Thee:
Back it goeth; forth, it cometh; what order is-


2. From the perfection of beauty, is the confusion of the true Beloved's tress. In tranquillity (death) is gained union with Him, which union is the desired of all.

Although in this life, by the attraction of grace, and by the drawings of God, -union with Him appeareth to the heart; yet, from the jealousy of love and the calamity of the end (death), the holy man is in danger; and tranquillity of heart is not his.

After death, when he arriveth in the House of Safety (Paradise), union with the Beloved (God) with tranquillity of heart is gained.

Therefore he desireth death, as Ḥāfiz (Ode 30, c. 1) saith.

Possibly, this Ode is in praise of Muḥammad, and of his Companions.

Then in couplet (1) we have:

(a) Māh-i-ḥusn va rūi rakhshān (moon-beauty; illumined face) each signifies:

The pure existence of Muḥamma.

(b) In ābrūi (water of the face)—āb and rū'i are separate, joined by iṣāfat.

(c) Rūyi rakhshān-i-shumā; and chāh-i-zanakhdān-i-şhuma are each addressed to :

The blessed companions, and the exalted followers (of Muḥammad); for the splendour of the Light of Muḥammad shone from their forehead.

When will this object appear, so that union with them (the companions) may be gained. Of His Highness, Bilāl (an African freed slave (of Muḥammad's ; d. 641 A.D.), it is related that, at the time of death, his wife began to weep and to utter “vā vailā" (O woe!). Bilal opened his eyes and thus gave counsel, saying :

[ocr errors]

"Say not-O woe (is me)! But make merry.

"To-day, thou shalt meet with the friends of Muḥammad; and with his attraction.

"Through grief, why utterest thou O woe! at the moment of my death?
"Say,-Make merry; for friend (Bilal) reacheth Friend (God)."

See the Kuran xxiii.

3. This couplet supports couplets I and 2 in the desire for death, by union with the true Beloved (God), which is the remote object; or by union with that Chief (Muḥammad) and his exalted Companions, which is a lofty object.

My soul hath come to the lip (ready to depart) in desire of the sight of Thee; and in desire of union with Thee, hath expired.

If the proper time (for death) shall have arrived the soul, coming forth from its cage (the body), reacheth its object (God); if not, the soul again revealeth a great degree of burning and of consuming.

When by us, Thou passest,-from dust (the illusory lover) and from blood (the true lover) keep far thy skirt:

For, on this Path (of love) many a one (a pretender) hath become a sacrifice of


4. (dust) signifies:

illusory persons (hypocrites of outward devotion).

(blood) signifies :

men of truth (pious ones of inward devotion). With jealousy, Ḥāfiṛ speaketh :

For, it is the mark of the pure lover to bear envy of his eye, his hand and his foot, saying :—In search of the Beloved, why do they precede me?

O true Beloved! in the Path of love, false claimants, in search of the true and the illusory, are many who in self-desire are seekers of Thee.

At the time of turning toward us, keep far Thy skirt of purity from the pollution of these, wet of skirt; bring thy lofty inclination to none-for all are stuffed with design, and sick with pollution.

The disease is only one out of thousand; for the seeker of God is void of the calamity of self. desire.

In the "Silk-i-Sulūk " Shaikh Ziyā Najshi relateth that a great one said :—

"When I desired to abandon the world, and to place my hand on the strong hope of the Lord God, to return to my Lord, to sever myself from all beside God, and to become fellow-breather with God,-I summoned Breath, Soul, and Heart."

First, I addressed Breath, saying:

O Breath, I desire to abandon the world, and to pass away from its delights.

In this matter, canst thou urge the steed with me?

Breath replied:—

So, I cannot do.

I said :


Breath replied:

The Eternal One having created me out of particles of the Earth; and drawn me, for its sake, out of the concealment of non-existence,-no help is mine as to its delights; no standing mine without its favours.

On hearing this speech from Breath I turned to Soul saying:

O Soul of mine, I desire to return to God; but, not in the hope of Paradise and of the pleasure of that abode. Nay, solely for the sake of the Godship of God.

Canst thou urge the steed with me?

Soul replied:

So, I cannot do.

I said :


Soul replied:

God hath created me for the delight of the next world; and, from the concealment of non-existence, brought me into existence for that delight.

Of the delight of the next world, no help is mine; and the existence of the sense of that hope is the road wanderer's delight.

On seeing that Breath and Soul were filled with objection and stuffed with desire, I turned to Heart saying:

O Heart, thou art the king of bodies and the place of convictions. If thou be good, the limbs are good: thou be bad, the limbs are bad. Thou art the king of the body; and on the king's fai h, men are dependent.

« PreviousContinue »