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Who was Jupiter?


Where was Jupiter born and educated?
What was his first exploit?

Did he enjoy his new empire undisturbed?

Was he married?


Were the subsequent actions of Jupiter worthy of him as god supreme?

What are the attributes of Jupiter?

How is Jupiter depicted in the Pantheon?

How was he honoured?

Had not Jupiter a variety of names?


Of Prometheus, Pandora, Deucalion.

PROMETHEUS was the son of Japetus by Clymene,
He animated a man whom he

one of the Oceantides.

had formed of clay, with fire, which, by the assistance
of Minerva, he stole from heaven; a theft which so
offended Jupiter, that he sent him Pandora with a
golden box.

Pandora was the first woman that Vulcan formed.
As soon as she was created, Minerva gave
Venus, beauty; Apollo, a knowledge of music; and
her wisdom;
Mercury, eloquence.

Prometheus suspected the artifice of Jupiter, and therefore delivered over Pandora to his brother Epinotheus, who being seduced by her beauty, chose her for his wife. The curiosity of Epinotheus was raised at seeing the box given by Jupiter. When opened, it was found to contain all the evils, which instantly escaped, and spread over the earth. But he shut the box again, and prevented Hope from flying out. That deluge of evils produced the Iron Age.

Jupiter ordered Mercury to chain Prometheus to mount Caucasus, with a vulture continually preying on his liver. After thirty years suffering, he was released by Hercules.-See Fig. 7.

Prometheus had a son named Deucalion, who was king of Thessaly, and married to Pyrrha, daughter of

Epimetheus. In his age the human race was destroyed by a deluge. Only Deucalion and his wife escaped the general calamity by saving themselves in a vessel that he had constructed, according to his father's advice.

The vessel floated for nine days, and at length rested upon the top of mount Parnassus, where they remained till the waters subsided. They then inquired of the oracle of Themis, how the earth was to be repeopled, and were commanded to throw behind them the bones of their grandmother.

They rightly guessed that by their grandmother was intended the earth, and by her bones were meant the stones. The stones thrown by Deucalion and by Pyrrha were changed into men and into women.

"No pow'r the pride of mortals can control:

Prone to new crimes, by strong presumption driv'n, With sacrilegious hands Prometheus stole

Celestial fire, and bore it down from heav'n:

The fatal present brought on mortal race

An army of diseases; death began

With vigour then, to mend its halting pace,

And found a more compendious way to man."-HORACE.

"Thy godlike crime was to be kind,

To render with thy precepts less

The sum of human misery than wretchedness,

And strengthen man with his own mind."-BYRON.

Obs. 1.-Prometheus is a name derived from a Greek word signifying to foresee future events; Epimetheus, from a word signifying to remember past events; and Pandora, from one signifying every gift.

Obs. 2.-It is believed that Prometheus was the first inventor of statues. To render the fables of the poets intelligible, they placed Minerva by him, directing his labours by her counsels; whence he is said to have given, as it were, a soul to his statues. Prometheus taught the Scythians to live mildly and comfortably; which gave rise to the saying that he made a man with the aid of the goddess of wisdom. Hence, he


37 is painted, stealing fire from heaven, either because he first established forges in Scythia, or because he was the inventor of the steel with which we elicit fire from flints. King Jupiter having driven him from his kingdom, Prometheus hid himself in the forests on mount Caucasus, which seemed to be inhabited by eagles and vultures. The sorrow which he experienced in so cruel an exile, was figured by a vulture tearing his liver.

Obs. 3.-The fables of Pandora and Deucalion, appear evidently, to relate to the Fall of man and the General Deluge.

Obs. 4.-The story of Pandora's box, was doubtless an attempt to account for the cause of that wonderful truth, which could not escape the observation even of the ancient heathens, namely, that a mixture of good and evil fills up the cup of life; and that among its bitterest dregs are always found some sweets, seems to have suggested the beautiful idea of Epimetheus' shutting the box ere Hope escaped.

Who was Prometheus?


What is said of Pandora?

Did Prometheus accept the dangerous gift?
Was Jupiter satisfied with this revenge?

Who was the son of Prometheus?

What afterwards happened to Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha?
Did they obey the command of the oracle?



JUNO, the Queen of Heaven and Earth, was the daughter of Saturn and Cybele, and the sister of Jupiter. The poets describe her as the majestic Empress of the skies, with all that is lofty, graceful, and magnificent, in her visage, figure, and motion. Some say that she was born at Argos, while others fix her nativity at Samos.

Juno was married to Jupiter. To render his wed


ding more solemn, Jupiter charged Mercury to invite all the gods, men, and animals. The nymph Chelone refused to be present. Mercury threw her down into a river, and changed her into a turtle (which her name signifies) that she might keep eternal silence.

The many conjugal infidelities of her husband rendered Juno haughty, jealous, and inexorable; and she punished his mistresses with unparalleled severity.

She persecuted Hercules, the son of Jupiter by Alcmena, with fury, so inveterate, that, as a punishment, Jupiter caused her to be suspended between heaven and earth. Vulcan having effected the rescue of his mother, was thrust out of the celestial abodes, and broke his leg by the fall. She, therefore, excited sedition among the gods to depose Jupiter; but by the help of Briareus, he frustrated their attempts, and Apollo and Neptune were cast out of heaven for the offence.

This punishment did not reform Juno. Having perceived that Jupiter loved the nymph Io, she made her the object of her revenge. Whereupon, in order to deliver her from the persecution of Juno, Jupiter metamorphosed her into a cow. The trick could not deceive the goddess. She imperiously demanded that this cow should be entrusted to her, and Jupiter did not dare to refuse her. Juno set her under the guard of Argus, who had one hundred eyes. This spy of the goddess could not be surprised, because fifty of his eyes remained open, while the other half was given up to sleep, (a perfect image of jealousy.) Yet Mercury, at the request of Jupiter, found means to lull Argus asleep by the sounds of his flute, and killed him during his sleep. To reward Argus, Juno transformed him into a peacock, and impressed his eyes on its feathers.

Juno was the mother of Mars, Vulcan, Hebe, and Ilithya, or Lucina.

Hebe, the goddess of youth, was cupbearer to the gods. Having displeased her father Jupiter, she was removed from the office, and Ganymede, a beautiful

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youth whom he had taken up to heaven, was appointed in her stead. Soon after, Hebe was married to Hercules.

Hebe is usually represented as a beautiful virgin, crowned with roses, and holding a vase or ewer, with a goblet, into which she pours nectar. Sometimes the eagle of Jupiter is depicted as drinking from the goblet.

Iris was the usual attendant of Juno. She ascended upon the rainbow, with expanded wings, with a blaze of glory round her head, and clothed in floating robes of beautiful, brilliant, and varying colours. She conveyed the commands of Juno, created dissensions, and released the souls of females struggling in the pangs of death. She was the personification of the rainbow.

The worship of Juno was the most solemn and general of all offered up to pagan divinities. She presided over the finery of women, over marriage, childbirth, power, empire, and riches; and was the special patroness of virtuous females; no woman of ill fame being allowed to enter her temples. She is described as the

"Great Queen of nuptual rights,

Whose pow'r the soul unites,

And fills the genial beds with chaste delights."

An ewe lamb and a sow were burnt on her altars on the first day of every month. Young geese, the hawk, and peacock, were her favourite birds; the lily, poppy, and dittany, her favourite plants.

Juno was called Argiva, because the Argives worshipped her; Bunea, because it was Bunæus, Mercury's son, who erected to her a temple; Coprotina, because maid-servants celebrated her festivals under a fig-tree; Curis, or Curitis, because the spear is sacred to her; Cingula, because it was she who unloosed the girdle which the bride wore when she was married; Dominduca and Interduca, because she brought the bride to her husband's house; Februalis, because her festivals were celebrated in the month of

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