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OLIVER GOLDSMITH was the third son of the Rev. Charles Gold

smith, and was born at Elphin, in the county of Roscommon in Ireland, in the year 1729. After being instructed in the classicks at the school of Mr. Hughes, he was admitted as Sizer in Trinity College, Dublin, the 11th of June, 1744; and on the 27th of February, 1749, O. S. two years after the regular time, he obtained the degree of bachelor of arts. Intending to devote himself to the study of physick, he left Dublin, and proceeded to Edinburgh in 1751, where he continued until the beginning of the year 1754, when, having imprudently engaged to pay a considerable sum of money for a fellow student, he was obliged precipitately to quit the place.

He made his escape as far as Sunderland, but there was overtaken by the emissaries of the law, and arrested. From this situation he was released by the friendship of Mr. Laughlin Maclane and Dr. Sleigh. He then took his passage on board a Dutch ship to Rotterdam; from whence, after a short stay he proceeded to Brussels. He then visited great part of Flanders; and after passing some time at Strasburgh and Louvain, where he obtained a degree of bachelor of physick, he accompanied an English gentleman to Geneva.

This tour, we are told, was made for the most part on foot. He had left England with little money; and being of a thoughtless turn, and at that time possessing a body capable of sustaining any fatigue, he proceeded resolutely in gratifying his curiosity by the sight of different countries. He had some knowledge of the French Language, and of musick: he played tolerably well on the German flute, which now at times became the means of his subsistence. His learning produced him a hospitable reception at most of the religious houses that he visited, and his music made him welcome to the peasants of Flanders and Germany. "Whenever I approached a peasant's house toward nightfall," he used to say, "I played one of my most merry tunes; and that generally procured me not only a lodging, but subsis"tence for the next day; but, in truth, (his constant expression) I must own, whenever I attempted to entertain persons of a higher rank, they

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always thought my performance odious, and never made me any return " for my endeavours to please them."

On his arrival at Geneva he was recommended as a proper person for a travelling tutor to a young gentleman, who had unexpectedly been left a considerable sum of money by a near relation. This connexion lasted but a short time they disagreed in the South of France, and parted. Friendless and destitute. Dr. Goldsmith was again left exposed to all the miseries of indigence in a foreign country. He, however, bore them with great fortitude; and, having by this time satisfied his curiosity abroad, he bent his course towards England, and arrived at Dover the beginning of the year 1758. On his return he found himself so poor that it was with difficulty he was enabled to reach the metropolis with a few half-pence only in his pocket. He was an entire stranger, and without any recommendation. He offered himself to several apothecaries in the character of a journeyman, but had the mortification to find every application without success. At length he was admitted înto the house of a chemist, and was employed in his laboratory until he discovered the residence of his friend Dr. Sleigh, who patronized and supported him. He afterwards was an assistant to Dr. Milner, who kept an academy at Peckham; but, being introduced to some booksellers, he relinquished his situation at the school, and commenced author. His first works were "The Bee," a weekly pamphlet, and "The Enquiry into the pre"sent State of polite Literature in Europe." He then resided in Greenarbour-court, near the Old-baily, from whence he removed to the Temple, where he lived during the rest of his life.

From the year 1759 to the time of his death his works were very numerous, and on a great variety of subjects. In 1765 he established his fame by the publication of "The Traveller." In 1766 " The Vicar of Wakefield" appeared. In 1768 "The Goodnatured Man" was acted at Covent Garden. In 1769 he published "The Deserted Village," and in 1772 "She Stoops "to Conquer" was represented at the same theatre. Besides these, he submitted to the drudgery of compiling Histories of England, of Greece, of Rome, of "The Earth and Animated Nature," which procured for him more money than fame. Just before his death he had formed a design for executing an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences; a plan which met with no encouragement.

Though his writings produced great emolument, he was generally necessitous; to which an improvident generosity, and a ridiculous habit of gaming a good deal contributed. He had been for some years afflicted with a strangury, which brought on a kind of habitual despondency. At length in March 1774, finding himself out of order, he, against the advice of his physician, took so large a portion of a medicine of violent operation, that it was supposed to have contributed to his dissolution on the 4th of April, 1774. He was buried in the Temple Church-yard, and a monument has been erected to his memory in Westminster Abbey.



PAUL WHITEHEAD was the youngest son of Mr. Edmund Whitehead, a tradesman, said to have been a taylor in Castle-yard, Holborn, and was born in 1710, on St. Paul's day, from which circumstance he obtained the christian name he bore. He received his education from a clergyman at Hitchin in Hertfordshire. Being intended for trade, he was placed an apprentice to a mercer in London; but, disliking his situation, he soon quitted it, and entered himself of the Temple, in order to study the law.

Being acquainted with Mr. Fleetwood, the manager of Drury-lane theatre, he was prevailed upon by that gentleman to become bound with him for the payment of a considerable sum of money, which, when it became due, the manager was unable to discharge. He absconded, therefore, and left Mr. Whitehead answerable for it, who, being arrested, was confined for several years within the walls of the Fleet Prison.

His first performance was "The State Dunces," inscribed to Mr. Pape, in 1733; and in 1738 he published "Manners," a satire, in which some nobleman having been treated with very little respect, a complaint was made to the House of Lords, and on the 12th February, 1738-9, it was voted to be scandalous, and Dodsley the publisher of it was taken into custody by the Black Rod, and confined a week. On this occasion Mr. Whitehead with drew until the storm was over.

His next performance was "The Gymnasiad," published in 1744; and that was succeeded by "Honour, a Satire," in 1747. At this period the Prince of Wales being in opposition to the Court, Mr. Whitehead connected himself with that party, and was author of the celebrated pamphlet, called "The Case of the honourable Alexander Murray," which fell under the censure of the House of Commons, who procured Mr. Owen, the publisher to be prosecuted for vending it. In 1755 he published "The Epistle to Dr. Thompson.


He had, in the year 1735, married Miss Dyer, only daughter of Sir Swinnerton Dyer, of Spain's Hall in Essex, with whom he is said to have received 10,000l. She died young; and Mr. Whitehead, after his release from Fleetwood's debt, lived in a state of independence, if not affluence. He was particularly attached to Lord Le Despenser, at whose house he almost constantly resided, and by whom he was held in an equal degree of estimation. To this nobleman he bequeathed his heart, with 5ol. for an urn, desiring it to be placed in some corner of his lordship's mausoleum, as a memorial of its warm attachment to the noble founder.

For some time before Mr. Whitehead's death, he lingered under a severe illness, during which he employed himself in burning his manuscripts. Though his disorder was such as no medicine would reach, he bore the excruciating pains which he suffered with great resignation, and died December 30, 1774. On the 13th of August following his heart was deposited, as he desired, with great pomp and ceremony.


JOHN ARMSTRONG was born in Castleton parish, Roxboroughshire, where his father and brother were both ministers. He compleated his education in the university of Cambridge; and took his degree in physick, February 4, 1732, with much reputation. He soon after came to the metropolis, where he was more successful as an author than a physician.

In 1737 he published his celebrated, though too licentious poem, called, "The Economy of Love;" which has passed through many editions, more, it is to be feared, to the advantage of the bookseller than to the reader.

In 1744 he produced "The Art of preserving Health;" a work, in which an excellent critick observes, there is a classical correctness and closeness of style that are truly admirable.

In 1746 he was appointed one of the physicians to the Hospital for lame and sick Soldiers behind Buckingham House; and in 1760 went physician to the army in Germany. He was the author of several medical works, which do not appear to have acquired much reputation.

He died in September 1779; and to the surprize of his friends, left a considerable sum of money, saved by great parsimony out of a very moderate income arising from his half-pay.



JOHN LANGHORNE was a native of Kirkby-Stephen in Westmoreland.

His father was the Reverend Joseph Langhorne, who died when this his son was young. The place of his education is unknown; nor does it appear from what seminary he obtained the academical honour by which he was distinguished. About the year 1761 he was at Clare-Hall, Cambridge; but his name does not appear in the list of Graduates either here or at Oxford. After entering into holy orders he became tutor to the sons of Robert Cracroft, Esq. of Hackthorne in Lincolnshire, whose daughter he afterwards married. In December 1765 he was appointed assistant at Lincoln'sInn. His marriage took place in January, 1767; and the death of his lady soon after produced the monody which does equal honour to the taste and sensibility of the author, and to the virtues of the person celebrated. He was a very frequent and miscellaneous writer, both in verse and prose. Besides a great variety of pieces, to which he affixed his name, he was the author of many others which were anonymous. Some time before his death he was presented to the living of Blagden in Somersetshire. He died on the first of April, 1779.



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