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EDWARD MOORE was the son of a clergyman of the English Com

munion, at Abingdon in Berkshire, He was born about the year 1720, and received his education from his uncle, a reputable school-master in Somersetshire. His original destination appears to have been for trade; and for some time he resided with one Mr. Jackson, an eminent merchant, who was a considerable dealer in linens. It does not appear that he ever was in business on his own account. Attached to the Muses, he early courted public attention; and in the year 1744 produced his first performance, entituled "Fables for the Female Sex," which was favourably received. In 1748 he undertook the defence of Mr. (afterwards Lord) Lyttleton, in an ironical poem called "The Trial of Selim the Persian, for high Crimes and Misdemeanors," 4to; and in the same year produced his first dramatic performance, "The Foundling," a comedy, acted at Drury Lane; but which, though aided by the performance of Garrick, Barry, Yates, Macklin, Mrs. Woffington, and Mrs. Cibber, and highly applauded and recommended by Colley Cibber, had but a moderate degree of success. In 1749, he complimented Mr. Garrick in an Ode on his marriage with Madam Violetti; and about the same period he united himself in the same state with Miss Hamilton, daughter of Mr. Hamilton, table-decker to the princesses. This lady had expressed her partiality towards him in a poem addressed to Miss Duck, daughter of the celebrated Stephen Duck, which was printed in several of the miscellaneous collections of the times.

He had relied hitherto on his pen for his support; and had some hopes, from the notice taken of him by Lord Lyttleton, of receiving from that nobleman's assistance' some permanent support. In this he was disappointed. From Mr. Garrick's friendship, however, he obtained some advantages. In 1751 his comedy of " Gil Blas" was acted at Drury Lane, and, though violently opposed, was carried through nine nights. In 1752 the tragedy of "The Gamester" was performed at the same theatre with success. In each of these performances the manager exerted himself both as actor and au

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thor; and on the publication of the latter had the author's thanks for the assistance he had received.

In January, 1753, a periodical paper, called "The World, by Adam Fitz Adam," was begun by Mr. Moore, and was carried on until February 1757. In this he was assisted by Lord Chesterfield, Lord Corke, Mr Walpole, Soame Jenyns, Whitehead, Warton, and other writers of eminence; and it is but justice to observe, that the papers written by our author will suffer no injury by a comparison with those of his coadjutors. All his exertions were, however, barely sufficient to ward off the inconveniencies of poverty. In 1756 he published his works in a quarto volume; in the preface to which he says, "I have sent this, my offspring, into the world, in as "decent a dress as I was able: a legitimate one I am sure it is; and if it "should be thought defective in strength, vigour or spirit, let it be consi"dered, that its father's marriage with the Muses, like most other marriages "into that noble family, was more from necessity than inclination." He continued "The World" until near the close of his life, which happened at South Lambeth, the 28th of February, 1757.




AMES CAWTHORN was born in the year 1720, at or near Sheffield, and received his education partly at Rotherham and partly at Kirkby Lonsdale. Whether he was indebted to either of the universities for any part of the literature he possessed is uncertain, as his name does not appear in either of the list of graduates. His first employment was that of usher at the school of one Mr. Clare, in the city of London, whose sister he married. His wife died before him. In 1743 he was chosen master of Tunbridge School by the Skinner's Company; and in conjunction with his patrons founded a library, which is annexed to that seminary. In 1746 he published his poem of "Abelard to Eloisa," which, with two sermons, was all that he printed in his life time.

He is said to have been in the general intercourse of life generous and friendly; but in the conduct of his school singularly harsh and severe. He had some extraordinary foibles. With little skill in horsemanship, he was fond of hunting; and with no acquaintance with musick, he was an admirer of concerts and operas. He has been known to ride to London from Tunbridge, in order to be present at a musical performance, though he was under the necessity of being back by seven o'clock the next morning. He was killed by a fall from his horse as he was going to bespeak the musick on some occasion from Tunbridge Wells, April 15, 1761, and was buried in Tunbridge Church.

Over his remains is the following inscription:

Hic situs est


Schola Tunbrigiensis magister,

Qui juventuti tum moribus tum literis instituenda

Operam magno non sine honore dedit.
Opibus, quas larga manu distribuit,'

Fruitur, & in æternum fruetur.
Obiit. heu citius! April 15, 1761,

Ætatis 40.

Soror mæsta ex grato animo hoc posuit.



CE HARLES CHURCHILL was born in Vine-street in the parish of St. John's, Westminster, in the year 1731. His father was lecturer and curate of the parish, and had also a living in the country. The son received his education at Westminster School, where stories are yet told of his early proficiency in his studies, of his negligence, and the eccentricity of his conduct. It has been said, that he was sent to Oxford, and rejected from thence for want of a proper skill in the learned languages. It is also believed, that he was a short time at Cambridge, under Dr. Rutherford of St. John's. Neither of the Universities can claim the honour of his education, which it is certain was begun and finished at Westminster.

When he was little more than seventeen years old, he contracted an intimacy with a young lady in the neighbourhood, which ended in a marriage. This union, which had its origin in passion, terminated in disgust. But, during the time the attachment lasted, Mr. Churchill made such a progress in literature, and maintained so good a character, that notwithstanding the want of an university education, he was admitted into orders, and ordained by Dr. Sherlock, Bishop of London.

His first provision in the church was a curacy of thirty pounds a year in Wales; to which remote part of the kingdom he retired with his wife, and applied himself to the duties of his station with assiduity and chearfulness. But being prompted to engage in a species of trade to add to his income, he in a short time experienced the folly of his deviation from his clerical profession, and a kind of bankruptcy soon followed.

His ill success brought him back to London; and, his father dying soon after, he succeeded him as curate and lecturer of St. John's; but, his income being insufficient for the maintenance of his family, he employed himself in teaching young ladies to read and write English with propriety and correctness, and for some time attended Mrs. Dennis's boarding-school. Still, however, his expences bore but a small proportion to his income. He became embarrassed

embarrassed with debts, and involved in difficulties, from which he was extricated by the assistance of Dr. Lloyd, the second master of Westminster School, who prevailed on his creditors to give him a release on receiving a fourth part of their respective debts. It is to the honour of Churchill to record, that, when his circumstances grew better, he voluntarily discharged the whole of the demands on him.

Though known to his intimate friends to be possessed of abilities calculated to entertain and instruct the publick, he was by no means forward to exhibit himself in the character of an author. He was little, if any thing, less than thirty years of age before he published any work with his name: if he produced any performance earlier, it was anonymous, and is now forgotten. In the year 1760, his friend Lloyd published "The Actor," a poem, addressed to Bonnel Thornton, which was received with great applause. The success of this performance probably incited Mr. Churchill to try his powers on a similar subject. Having been always fond of dramatic entertainments, he had been a constant attendant on the Theatre, and an accurate observer of the beauties or defects of the several performers. These he made the subject of a poem which he called "The Rosciad," first published anonymously in May 1761; but on being invidiously ascribed to Mr. Lloyd, he immediately reprinted it with his name. Few poems have been so generally read, and perhaps fewer so generally admired. This was followed by "The Apology," and that by "Night:" the merits of these were not inferior to the " Rocciad," but neither of them ever became so popular.

The political dissentions at this period increasing every day, at length became so violent, that few persons escaped being influenced in some manner by them. Mr. Churchill had contracted an intimacy with the heads of the party then called the Opposition, and, agreeably to the warmth of his temper, endeavoured to promote the interest of those with whom he was connected, by every effort in his power. A subject had been suggested to him as adapted for the then popular paper "The North Briton;" but, on considering it with attention, he thought it would be better to form it into a poem'; this he executed under the title of "The Prophecy of Famine," inscribed to John Wilkes, Esq. Having thus embarked in politicks, he soon rendered himself of importance enough to be included in the general warrant under which Mr. Wilkes was taken into custody: he escaped however, the search made after him, and continued his exertions against the Minister with great perseverance, and not without some effect. Hardly one of his poems, published after this period, is free from the reproach of party virulence.

The rapidity of his pen, and the eagerness with which his works were purchased, were circumstances not favourable to his reputation. As he proceeded in his literary career, he became more negligent; what he hastily wrote, he as hastily committed to the press. His latter works are manifestly inferior to his earliest productions. The genius of Churchill occasionally appears, but much dimmed and obscured. The fertility of his mind cannot


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