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the imposing ceremonies of the Court. A visit to the Royal Mews is of much interest, and armed with the requisite permission I enter the gateway adjoining Buckingham Palace, and after a few words with the active and courteous superintendent, I am conducted round on a tour of inspection. Nearly everybody in London knows the entrance, but little can be seen from the exterior of what lies beyond the Doric archway surmounted with its clock tower.

The courtyard beyond this archway has a busy appearance. It is of large dimensions, and makes a first-rate exercise ground for pairs and teams. A brakesman is tooling round a fine chestnut team of His Majesty's, and the Crown Equerry, and a group of officials, are interested spectators. State coaches are being busily cleaned outside the various coach-houses, a drum is being vigorously beaten to accustom the horses to state processions.

Who has not heard of the famous cream-coloured horses, the like of which are never seen? Nine of these beautiful animals-which were originally introduced from Hanover-are kept here; needless to say these are only used on very great occasions-in fact, only for Coronations, the opening of Parliament by the Sovereign in person,


The breed of these horses is maintained in the royal stables at Hampton Court, and should accident or death arise in the team here, the Hampton Court supply is drawn upon. Emergency, however, is pretty well provided for by the presence of the ninth animal in these Mews. One of them is brought out for me to photograph, and certainly a more beautiful animal could not be seen. Its coat has the appearance of the most glossy cream satin; its silken mane is flowing and wavy, while its tail actually sweeps the ground. The tail of one of these Flemish beau



NEARLY £7,000. LAST USED IN 1861.

means become

ties had by some impaired, So a fine matched "switch" of horsehair was used to eke out its splendour.

If you should be near the Mews any summer morning about six o'clock, you may see the entire team driven out to the Park for exercise, by Mr. Miller, the state coachman; then they are, of course, minus their state trappings, which form no inconsiderable part of the show they make when fully harnessed. This consists of goldcoloured metal-work with red morocco. The entire outfit for each horse weighs over one hundredweight. It is the most costly set of harness in the Mews, and is rarely used-not even on drawingroom days.

Next in interest are the famous black Flemish horses, standing ach of them about eighteen hands

These are only used by the ers of the Royal Family,

sometimes in pairs, sometimes in teams; or on some very special occasions six of them will draw His Majesty. If at any time the King should be driving behind the team of cream horses, the coach of the next personage of importance would be horsed by six blacks.

The "state coaches' can be used either open or closed. Royal guests are accommodated with these; on such occasions they are harnessed with blacks, and postillions are mounted. The visit of the German Emperor and Empress to the City, for instance, was made in this way. These coaches are highly decorated with cords and tassels of crimson and gold, and a multiplicity of straps. The panels and hammercloth also are fully emblazoned with the Royal Arms in colours.

While I have been inspecting and photographing these, stablemen have been busy running out the old state coach and placing it in posi

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tion. By the side of this the Lord Mayor's coach fades into insignificance. It is of the most wonderful and gorgeous construction, and was built at a cost of nearly seven thousand pounds for the coronation of George III. It never goes out now; were it to do so it would be sure to attract a huge crowd, so elaborate and highly ornamented is it in appearance. It was designed by Sir William Chambers, and has some magnificent paintings on it by Gpriani. To give you an idea of the extreme beauty of these paintings, I may tell you that ten thousand pounds has been offered for the panel of one doorway should the coach ever be broken up. It has only been seen in public twice during the late Queen's reign-at her Coronation, and again in 1861. The body of the coach itself is composed of eight palm trees, which, branching out at the top, support the roof. The victories of Great Britain in war are illustrated in trophies sup

ported by lions. On the centre of the roof three figures represent the genii of England, Scotland, and Ireland, who support in their hands the Sceptre, Sword of State, and Imperial Crown. The whole of the paintings are allegorical. The harness used in conjunction with this coach is made of red morocco leather, and decorated with blue ribbons, royal arms, and other richly gilt ornaments. may say that its entire length-without horses-is twenty-four feet, with a height of fourteen feet; the total weight is upwards of four tons.

Of course, in addition to the special carriages, there are a large number used by the various members of the Royal Family. For instance, when the Princess Christian, the Duchess of Albany, or any other of the Royal Family opens a bazaar, or attends any one of the many charitable institutions under their patronage, the horses and carriages are supplied from the Royal

Mews. Even for these ceremonies the formula is very careful and exact, the royal servants, generally speaking, driving over the ground to be traversed the day before, in order to form a correct estimate of the time taken, and allow of the punctual arrival for which the Royal Family are distinguished.

There are upwards of a hundred and twenty horses in these Mews; these are, of course, in addition to the animals kept at the other palaces.

The stables, of course, are not of modern construction; but they are capacious and splendidly ventilated, and it is hardly necessary to say that they are kept up to the pitch of cleanly perfection. The creams and blacks occupy one large stable to themselves, over each box appearing the name of the animal occupying it. One or two of them are remarkably clever in understanding what is said to them, and it was with supreme delight that the state. coachman showed me some special tricks of one of the black Flemish horses. Many of these animals are named after British battles; thus you see Tel-el-Kebir, Kassassin, Chitral, etc.; these names are chosen by the Grand Equerry.

When the Royal Family are in town this stable is a favourite afternoon resort of the princes and princesses, who most of them take very great interest in these rare animals, and make a practice of feeding them with sugar and apples.

There are many other horses— special ones, well worthy of note amongst those reserved exclusively for riding. One is a favourite of the Duke of Connaught, and another was often used by the late

Prince Henry of Battenberg; those, too, that are ridden by the Equerries in Ordinary are fine animals.

The riding-school of the Mews is situated on the same side of the quadrangle as the coach-houses. It is of large dimensions, with its floor, of course, thickly covered with tan. Here some young animals are being exercised; in fact. this is the chief purpose to which the place is put now, for actual riding lessons are few and far be tween. Nevertheless, most of the princes received their instruction here in former days, and it is said. that her late Majesty has often watched from the window at the far end her children and grandchildren taking their riding lessons.

A very important personage is His Majesty's state coachman, also a very imposing one when in full dress. He is a perfect blaze of scarlet and gold, and I should not like to say how much the coat alone weighs. I felt the weight of it in my two hands, and wondered how Mr. Miller could bear it on his shoulders in a hot summer sun, as he often has to do when driving His Majesty on state occasions. It is no light office to have the control of six or eight horses and the charge of the Sovereign of Great Britain, especially when one takes into consideration the blare of trumpets, the playing of massed military bands, ringing of bells, waving of handkerchiefs and flags, and, above all, the shouts of the multitude—all of which attend a royal progress, and are tended to startle the best-behaved of animals. It wants a very cool head, and firm, steady hand for the performance of such duties.

Live pure, speak true, right wrong, follow the King.



HIS is the most comprehensive survey of Christendom at the beginning of the twentieth century which we know. It presents the Christian conditions and activities of every country in the world as set forth by sixty competent contributors. These are for the most part men who are either natives of these lands, or missionaries of long experience, or persons who have made a special study of the countries and their conditions.

That on Canada is written by the late lamented Principal Grant, than whom no man was more competent for this task. He pays a generous tribute to our own Methodism. He declares that no Protestant church in Canada has so effective an organization. He anticipates an integration of the religious forces of the country in which each shall supply some special quality which shall enhance the value of the whole. All the Protestant Churches, he says, more or less live before the public. Their assemblies are reported by the press, their debates. and diverse views are known of all. The Roman Catholic Church does not live in such a house of glass. The hierarchy meets, but no reporter is ever present, no discussions appear in the papers, the

"Christendom Anno Domini MDCCCCI." Illustrated. Two Vols. A Presentation of Christian Conditions and Activities in Every Country of the World at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century, by more than sixty competent Contributors. Edited by the Rev. William D. Grant, Ph.D. With Introductory Note by President Charles Cuthbert Hall, D.D. Toronto: William Briggs. Pp. xx-582, xiii-471. Price, $3.50 net, postpaid.

majorities pro and con are never revealed. For this reason an exaggerated view of the political power and unity and unchangeable policy of that Church is entertained.

The Anglican Church, he says, has been weakened as a religious force, by persistent efforts to establish it as a State Church and to separate it from sister Churches. The Churches as a whole, he says, are full of an energy which the youth and hopeful spirit of a new country has inspired. As religious forces they are strong and healthy because they are based on the genuine sentiments and religious convictions of the people. He pays

a high tribute to the Canadian press, which may as a whole be called one of its religious forces of incalculable significance, on the possession of which Canada may be congratulated.

Many persons are under the impression that Roman Catholicism is increasing in the world. That is far from being the case. Father Lynch, a Roman Catholic priest, states that the Roman Catholic population of the United Kingdom is hardly two-thirds of what it was at the beginning of Victoria's reign. Then it was one-third of the population, now it is hardly one-sixth. Throughout the British Empire, he says, there has been a steady decrease. "Year by year they are diminishing, as if struck by some fatal disease, wherever the English flag flies. The spread of the Empire is no preparation for the growth of Catholicism." Catholicism, seated at Rome, he adds, can never again govern the world. The religious activity of British Christianity is so marked that "however true it may be elsewhere, certainly

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