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the whole of which had been annexed by the British. They offered to submit to a British 'protectorate" or "supervision," but Milner and Kitchener, though courteous and kind, were firm in refusing a vestige of independence.

The final meeting of the burghers was not without its pathos. They accepted the inevitable. DeWet had seen this result, he said, from the very beginning, yet he was one of the most stubborn in resisting to the end, and was one of the last to yield. He met with a cordial, even enthusiastic reception in Britain, but got the cold shoulder in Germany, the Emperor refusing even to meet him.

Much may be pardoned a defeated soldier, but his book betrays at times a bitterness of spirit and vituperation towards the conquerors that does not tend to the peace and good-will which

the British wish to establish in South Africa. In no other country, we think, would he be allowed to publish unchallenged, such a book. He is specially bitter against what he calls the "war upon women," although he declares he was unable to look after his own family. The British gathered into refuge camps nearly a hundred thousand of refugees, old men, women and children, erected tents and houses, furnished food and clothing, doctors and nurses, chapels and teachers; thus many thousands of lives were saved. More children were taught than were in school at any time of peace. Meanwhile many thousands of Boers, relieved of the care of their families, were waging implacable war upon their protectors. The world never saw such an example of clemency before.

THE LATE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY.

BISHOP TEMPLE.

The lat Archbishop of Canterbury.

It is a good many decades since the dingy palace which Wolsey built across the Thames has housed a man of more typical English temper, of greater courage, and of more force than Dr. Temple, Archbishop of Canterbury, who died at Lambeth Palace last week. Among the many forceful and interesting personalities who have crowded English public life during the last half of the last century, Dr. Temple held

remost position. Born on one of

the Ionian Islands in 1821, the son of a Governor of Sierra Leone, Dr. Temple, unlike most Englishmen of his position, was compelled to make his own way in the world. At seventeen he was thrown upon his own resources. "I have known," he says, 44 what it was to go without a fire because I could not afford one; and I have worn patched clothes and boots." As a boy and youth he knew at first hand the hard work of the farm; but he was fortunate in securing what was absolutely essential for his later career, a thorough education. He went to the Grammar School at Tiverton, and subsequently to Oxford, where he made his mark and became scholar of Balliol, the Oxford college. His election as Fellow and Mathematical Tutor of Balliol gave him six additional years of study in the seclusion and the stimulating atmosphere of Oxford. He was ordained to the ministry in 1846; two years later he became Principal of the training college for teachers at Kneller Hall. In 1855 he became Instructor of Schools, and three years later was chosen the head master of the Rugby School, a position which he held for eleven years. His masterful hand was felt in every department of the school; and the two sides of his nature--his keen sense of justice and his bluntness of mannerwere both expressed in the well-known phrase of the Rugby boy who wrote

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to his father: Temple is a beast, but he is a just beast."

When the famous volume of "Essays and Reviews" appeared in 1860, Dr. Temple's initial essay on "The Education of the World" drew a fire of criticism; and the book was the centre of a hotly contested battle of opinions. Two of the essayists were tried and finally acquitted. Dr. Temple's essay, which was regarded as extraordinarily radical at the time of its publication, was a very cautious acceptance of the general idea of progression in the revelation of truth, and its positions are to-day almost universally accepted.

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When Mr. Gladstone, in 1868, nominated Dr. Temple as Bishop of Exeter, Dr. Pusey declared that the selection of Dr. Temple was the most frightful enormity that had ever been perpetrated by a Prime Minister." Dr. Temple's election was confirmed, and for seventeen years he put his whole strength into the many-sided work of an English Bishop, doing everything with energy and decision. In 1885 he became Bishop of London, and, in spite of failing eyesight, he immediately made his mark on that vast diocese by the vigour and directness of his administration. Many stories were told of his bluntness. It used to be said that an interview with the Bishop of London consisted of three sentences on his part-"Who are you?" de you want?" "No."

What

On the death of Archbishop Benson, six years ago, Dr. Temple was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, being the twenty-seventh who has held a position second in dignity in the English order only to that of the Sovereign. No Bishop in recent years had more perplexing and difficult questions to deal with. The Church has been shaken almost to its foundations during the last three years by the practices of the extreme ritualistic party, the claims of the pronounced Anglo-Catholics, and the

vigorous opposition of the Protestant party in the Church; the disposition of great ecclesiastics to seek the safe rather than the bold course, to speak smooth rather than true things, which has so often brought reproach upon the Church, cannot be charged to Dr. Temple. He regarded himself as the head of a national Church, not the Archbishop of a party; and he stood for tolerance within what he regarded as the legitimate limits of freedom under the Church order and teaching.

Although an old man when he became Archbishop, Dr. Temple has left the mark of his energy and independence on the English Church. Up to the very end, in spite of increasing evidence of failing strength, he performed his duties with extraordinary vitality. The faintness which nearly overcame him during the long and complicated ceremonial of the coronation first directed public attention to his condition, and was the occasion of one of those acts of quick-witted courtesy which are so characteristic of the King. A second similar attack, to which Dr. Temple almost succumbed, in a recent speech on the Education Bill in the House of Lords, made it evident that the end was not far off. To the last of his life he lived up to the popular characterization as "The Grand Old Man of the English Church." With a strong and rugged face, large of stature, a brisk manner, speaking with great energy without notes in the most straightforward English, Dr. Temple was a debater of great skill. Indifferent to the applause of friends or the condemnation of opponents, more anxious to speak what he felt to be the truth than to please or placate, a man of force rather than of charm, of mental vigour rather than of intellectual greatness, but one who e very limitations had a certain tonic influence in a position the traditions of which all lead towards complaisant conservatism, Dr. Temple was a leader of the English Church in a great crisis in its history.-The Outlook.

Who else had dared for thee what I have dared?
I plunged the depth most deep from bliss above;
I not my flesh, I not my spirit spared;
Give thou Me love for love!

Nailed to the racking cross, than bed of down More dear, whereon to stretch myself and sleep, So did I win a kingdom-share My crown!

A harvest-come and reap!

-Christina G. Rossetti.

THE GREATEST BOOK.

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A writer in the Sunday Magazine indulges in a series of curious computations based upon the number of bibles now in circulation. This number he estimates upon good evidence to be about 200,000,000 copies. Reckoning the average size of the volumes to be 5 x 6 x 1 inches, he figures up 5,642,260 as the number of cubic feet of bibles in existence. With this enormous bulk could be built a wall of bibles six feet high, which would reach over four hundred miles, from New York to Buffalo or from London to Geneva, Switzerland.

If all the paper used in the greatest book were to be taken in one sheet, at the most modest computation some 518,123 acres would be required. Take them volume by volume, and their area would cover 1,036 acres.

Load them on me chant ships of average tonnage (1,340 tons), and a fleet of eighty vessels would be required to transport the volumes. And it should be remembered that in 1800, only a century ago, the world's stock of bibles was not more than 5,000,000.

In Fig. 1 the three open volumes in the upper portion of the diagram are drawn, as far as height and width are concerned, in proportion to the estimated number of bibles circulating in 1800 and

1889, and the number that experts declare existed throughout the world at the dawn of the twentieth century. In 1800, four years before the British and Foreign Bible Society was founded, the world possessed, notwithstanding the fact that no less than 1,326 editions were printed in the sixteenth century alone, only 5,000,000 copies of the greatest of books, and judging from the fact that 14,000 families in Sweden had not a single bible and that 50,000 inhabitants of Iceland had but 50 copies among them, these 5,000,000 must have heen very unevenly distributed. By 1889, thanks to the various Bible Societies and the wonderful improvements in the printing press, the circulation of the holy book had multiplied almost thirty times.

In the lower portion of the diagram the lengths of the two columns are drawn in proportion to the population of the world in 1800 and 1900, and it can be seen at a glance that although the bible circulation had increased forty times during that period, the population of the world had also increased about two and one-third times, so that the net increase in the bible circulation-that is, the proportion of bibles to inhabitants-is about seventeen times what it was in 1800; in other words (see Fig. 2), whereas in 1800 there was only one copy to every 128 of the world's inhabitants, in 1900 there was one to every seven and a half, or three copies to every seven Christians on the earth. In order to show the relative values of these three numbers (128, 7, 2) graphically and clearly, the three squares in Fig. 2 are drawn in proportion to them.

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We live not in our moments or our years; The present we fling from us like the rind Of some sweet future, which we after find Bitter to taste or bind that in with fears, And water it beforehand with our tearsVain tears for that which never may arrive; nwhile the joy whereby we ought to live, ted, or unheeded, disappears.

Wiser it were to welcome and make ours Whate'er of good, though small, the present brings

Kind greetings, sunshine, song of birds, and flowers,

With a child's pure delight in little things; And of the griefs unborn to rest secure, Knowing that mercy ever will endure.

-Trench.

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NATIVE WEAPONS.

It is a remarkable tribute to the justice and clemency of British rule in India that fifty years after the great Mutiny, described in another part of this magazine, which threatened to drive the British into the sea, the most magnificent celebration of the accession to the throne and coronation of King Edward VII. should be celebrated in the very centre of that colossal revolt.

The record reads like a tale of the Arabian Nights. The costumes of the heralds and trumpeters, and the Viceroy's bodyguard, riding black horses with leopard skins over the saddles, and the elephant procession, are pronounced one of the most gorgeous pageants ever witnessed. What gives the Durbar special interest to our American kins

ROYAL DECORATIONS

AT CALCUTTA.

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