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REAFFIR'MANCE, n... Re and affirmance. A second confirmation.

Causes of deprivation are a conviction before the ordinary of a wilful maintaining any doctrine contrary to the thirty-nine articles, or a persisting therein without revocation of his error, or a reaffirmance after such revocation. Ayliffe. REAGENTS, in chemistry, are such substances as enable the experimenter to draw conclusions as to the nature of the bodies examined by means of the alterations produced by the reagent. In the experiments of chemical analysis, the component parts of bodies may either be ascertained in quantity as well as quality by the perfect operations of the laboratory, or their quality alone may be detected by the operations of certain tests or reagents. Thus the infusion of galls is a reagent, which detects iron by a dark purple or black precipitate; the prussiate of potash exhibits a blue with the same metal, &c. See


RE-AGGRAVATION, in the Romish ecclesiastical law, the last monitory, published after three admonitions, and before the final excommunication. Before they proceed to excommunication, they always publish an aggravation, and a re-aggravation. REAL, adj. Fr. reel; Lat. realis. REALITY, n. s. Genuine; true; intrinsic; REALIZE, v. a. relating to things, not to REALLY, adv. persons; in law relating to REAL'GAR, 7. S. things immoveable, as land, &c.; reality is truth; verity: something in trinsically important: to realise, to bring into act or being; sometimes to convert money into land; sometimes to convert other property into money really corresponds with real: realgar is a mineral defined below.

Many are perfect in men's humours, that are not greatly capable of the real part of business; which

is the constitution of one that hath studied men more than books. Bacon.

Put realgar hot into the midst of the quicksilver, whereby it may be condensed as well from within as without.


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We shall at last discover in what persons this holiness is inherent really, in what condition it is inherent perfectly, and consequently in what other sense it may be truly and properly affirmed that the church is holy.


I am hastening to convert my small estate, that is personal, into real. Child on Trade. As a diocesan, you are like to exemplify and realize every word of this discourse. South.

There cannot be a more important case of conscience for men to be resolved in, than to know certainly how far God accepts the will for the deed, and how far he does not; and to be informed truly when men do really will a thing, and when they have really no power to do what they have willed. When I place any imaginary name at the head of a VOL. XVIII.


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REAL (Gaspard de), lord of Curban and grand seneschal of Forcalquier, was born at Sisteron, in 1682, and became distinguished for his political abilities. He wrote a Treatise on Government, in 8 vols. 4to., Paris, 1762, which was much esteemed. He died in Paris in 1752.

REALGAR, in chemistry and mineralogy, the native sulphuret of arsenic.

REALISTS, a sect of school philosophers formed in opposition to the nominalists. See NOMINALISTS. Under the realists are included the Scotists, Thomists, &c. Their distinguishing tenet is that universals are realities, and have an actual existence out of an idea or imagination; or, as they express it in the schools, a parte rei; whereas the nominalists contend that they exist only in the mind, and are only ideas, or methods of conception. Dr. Odo, or Oudard, a native of Orleans, afterwards abbot of St. Martin de Tournay, was the chief of the realists. He wrote three books of dialectics, where, on the principles of Boethius and the ancients, he maintained that the object of that art is things, not words. REALM, n. s. Fr. roiaulme. A kingdom;

a king's dominion.

Is there any part of that realm, or any nation therein, which have not yet been subdued to the crown of England? Spenser.

They had gathered a wise council to them Of every realm that did debate this business. Shakspeare.

A son whose worthy deeds Raise him to be the second in that realm. Milton. 2 D

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REALTY, n. s. Ital. realty; of Lat. regalitas. Loyalty to kings.

O heaven, that such resemblance of the Highest Should yet remain, where faith and realty Remain not. Milton's Paradise Lost. Realty means not in this place reality in opposition to show, but loyalty; for the Italian dictionary explains the adjective reale by loyal. REAM, n. s. Sax. neam; Fr. rame; Belg. riem. A bundle of paper containing twenty quires.


All vain petitions mounting to the sky, With reams abundant this abode supply. Pope. REAN'IMATE, v. a. Lat. re and animo. To revive; restore to life.

We are our reanimated ancestors, and antedate their resurrection. Granville's Scepsis. The young man left his own body breathless on the ground, while that of the doe was reanimated. Spectator.

REANNEX', v. a. Re and annex. To annex again.

King Charles was not a little inflamed with an ambition to repurchase and reannex that duchy.

Bacon's Henry VII. REAP, v. a. & v. n. Sax. nepan; Belg. REAP'ER, n. s. reepen; Swed. repa. REAPING-HOOK. To cut corn at harvest; to obtain or gather; to harvest: the reaper is he who reaps; and the reaping-hook, his instru


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From Ireland come I with my strength, And reap the harvest which that rascal sowed. Shakspeare. What sudden anger's this? how have I reaped it? Id.

Our sins being ripe, there was no preventing of God's justice from reaping that glory in our calamities, which we robbed him of in our prosperity. King Charles. Some are bribed to vow it looks Most plainly done by thieves with reaping hooks. Dryden. Here Ceres' gifts in waving prospects stand, And nodding tempt the joyful reaper's hand. Pope. REAR, n. s. I Fr. arriere, of Lat. retro. REAR WARD. The hinder class; hinder troop of an army, or the hinder line of a fleet: rearward is also used in these senses. The standard of Dan was the rearward of the Numbers.


He from the beginning began to be in the rearward, and before they left fighting was too far off. Sidney.

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Fled from his well-known face, with wonted fear, As when his thund'ring sword and pointed spear Drove headlong to their ships, and gleaned the Dryden. REAR, v. a. Sax. aɲæpan; Isl. reira. To raise up; move or life upwards; hence bring to maturity; breed; educate.

All the people shouted with a loud voice, for the rearing up of the house of the Lord. 1 Esdras.


Down again she fell unto the ground,
But he her quickly reared up again.
No creature goeth to generate, whilst the female
is busy in sitting or rearing her young.

In adoration at his feet I fell
Submiss; he reared me.

Who now shall rear you to the sun, or rank
Your tribes.

Into the naked woods he goes,

And seeks the tusky boar to rear,

With well-mouthed hounds and pointed spear.



Dryden. They were a very hardy breed, and reared their young ones without any care.

Mortimer's Husbandry. Charity decent, modest, easy, kind, Softens the high, and rears the abject mind. Prior. They have in every town public nurseries, where all parents, except cottagers and labourers, are obliged to send their infants to be reared and educated. Swift. He wants a father to protect his youth, And rear him up to virtue. Southern. They flourished long in tender bliss, and reared A numerous offspring, lovely like themselves.


No flesh from market-towns our peasant sought; He reared his frugal meat, but never bought. Harte.

REAR, adj. Sax. hɲeɲe. Raw; half-roasted; early. A provincial word.

O'er yonder hill does scant the dawn appear, Then why does Cuddy leave his cot so rear? Gay.

REAR GUARD is that body of an army which marches after the main body. The old grand guards of the camp always form the rear guard of the army, and are to see that every thing arrives safe at the new camp.

REAR MOUSE, n. s. Sax. preɲe mur. The leather-winged bat.

Some war with rearmice for their leathern wings To make my small elves coats. Shakspeare.

Of flying fishes the wings are not feathers, but a thin kind of skin, like the wings of a bat or rearAbbot. Re and ascend.


REASCEND', v. n. & v. a. To climb again; mount again.

When as the day the heaven doth adorn,

I wish that night the noyous day would end;
And when as night hath us of light forlorn,
I wish that day would shortly reascend. Spenser.


Taught by the heav'nly muse to venture down The dark descent, and up to reascend. When the god his fury has allayed, He mounts aloft, and reascends the skies.

REA'SON, n. s., v. n. & v. a.`


REA'SONER, n. s.

Addison. Fr. raison; Lat. ratio. The

power by which men deI duce conclusions from an argument; ratiocination; discursive art; hence cause, considered logically; efficient or final cause; reasonable or just claim, account, or practice; moderation: to reason is to argue; hence to debate; discourse; make enquiry; argue rationally or correctly; and to examine rationally (a gallicism): reasonable, reasonableness, and reasonably, correspond with reason as a noun substantive reasoner is he who uses the faculty of reason; an arguer: reasoning is argument; logic reasonless, devoid of reason; causeless. Stand still, that I may reason with you of all the righteous acts of the Lord. 1 Samuel xii. 7.

Jesus perceiving their thoughts, said, What reason ye in your hearts ? Luke v. 22.

She perceived her only son lay hurt, and that his hurt was so deadly, as that already his life had lost use of the reasonable and almost sensible part.


I was promised on a time, To have reason for my rhyme : From that time unto this season, I received nor rhyme nor reason. Spenser. Reason is the director of man's will, discovering in action what is good; for the laws of well-doing are the dictates of right reason.


I mask the business from the common eye For sundry weighty reasons.


Shakspeare. Macbeth. When valour preys on reason, It eats the sword it fights with. Are you in earnest ? -Ay, and resolved withal To do myself this reason and this right. Reason with the fellow, Before you punish him, where he heard this. Id. Let all things be thought upon, That may with reasonable swiftness add


More feathers to our wings. Id. Henry V. This proffer is absurd and reasonless. Shakspeare. That they wholly direct the reasonless mind, I am resolved; for all those which were created mortal, as birds and beasts, are left to their natural appetites. Raleigh's History of the World.

It was a reasonable conjecture, that those countries which were situated directly under the tropic, were of a distemper uninhabitable.


Spain is thin sown of people, partly by reason of the sterility of the soil, and partly their natives are exhausted by so many employments in such vast territories as they possess. Bacon.

Some man reasonably studied in the law, should be persuaded to go thither as chancellor. Id.

When she rates things, and moves from ground to ground,

The name of reason she obtains by this;

But when by reason she the truth hath found, And standeth fixt, she understanding is. Davies. The parliament was dissolved, and gentlemen furnished with such forces, as were held sufficient to hold in bridle either the malice or rage of reasonable people.


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These reasons in love's law have past for good, Though fond and reasonless to some.


The passive reason, which is more properly easonableness, is that order and congruity which is impressed upon the thing thus wrought; as in a watch, the whole frame and contexture of it carries a reasonableness in it, the passive impression of the reason or intellectual idea that was in the artist. Hale.

To render a reason of an effect or phenomenon is to deduce it from something else more known than itself. Boyle.

Virtue and vice are not arbitrary things, but there is a natural and eternal reason for that goodness and virtue, and against vice and wickedness. Tillotson.

When any thing is proved by as good arguments as a thing of that kind is capable of, we ought not in reason to doubt of its existence.


If we can by industry make our deaf and dumb person reasonably perfect in the language and pronunciation, he may be also capable of the same privilege of understanding by the eye what is spoken.

Holder's Elements of Speech. Dim, as the borrowed beams of moon and stars To lonely, weary, wandering travellers, Is reason to the soul: and as on high, Those rolling fires discover but the sky, Not light us here; so reason's glimmering ray Was lent, not to assure our doubtful way, But guide us upward to a better day.



Let it drink deep in thy most vital part; Strike home, and do me reason in thy heart. Chaucer makes Arcite violent in his love, and unjust in the pursuit of it; yet when he came to die, he made him think more reasonably.


The papists ought in reason to allow them all the excuses they make use of for themselves; such as an invincible ignorance, oral tradition, and authority. Stilling fleet.

Reason, in the English language, sometimes is taken for true and clear principles; sometimes for clear and fair deductions; sometimes for the cause, particularly the final cause. Locke.

Every man's reasoning and knowledge is only about the ideas existing in his own mind; and our knowledge and reasoning about other things is only as they correspond with those our particular ideas.

Id. By reason of the sickness of a reverend prelate, I have been over-ruled to approach this place.

Sprat. If we commemorate any mystery of our redemption, or article of our faith, we ought to confirm our belief of it, by considering all those reasons upon which it is built; that we may be able to give a good account of the hope that is in us.


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Due reverence pay


To learned Epicurus; see the way
By which this reasoner of so high renown
Moves through the ecliptick road the rolling sun.

Your reasonings therefore on this head, amount only to what the schools call ignoratio elenchi; proving before the question, or talking wide of the purpose. Waterland.

In the lonely grove, 'Twas there just and good he reasoned strong, Cleared some great truth, or raised some serious song. Tickel.

It would be well, if people would not lay so much weight on their own reason in matters of religion, as to think every thing impossible and absurd which they cannot conceive: how often do we contradict the right rules of reason in the whole course of our lives! reason itself is true and just, but the reason of every particular man is weak and wavering, perpetually swayed and turned by his interests, his passions, and his vices. Swift.

A law may be reasonable in itself, although a man does not allow it, or does not know the reason of the lawgivers. Id.

The church has formerly had eminent saints in that sex; and it may reasonably be thought that it is purely owing to their poor and vain education, that this honour of their sex is for the most part confined to former ages.


On the whole it appears, and my argument shows With a reasoning the court will never condemn. That the spectacles plainly were made for the

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After Henry VIII. had reassumed the supremacy,

a statute was made, by which all doctors of the civil law might be made chancellors.


For this he reassumes the nod, While Semele commands the god. Prior. REASSURE', v. a. Fr. reassurer; re and assure. To restore from terror; free from fear. They rose with fear,

Till dauntless Pallas reassured the rest.

Dryden. REATE', n. s. A kind of long small grass that grows in water, and complicates itself together. Let them lie dry six months to kill the waterweeds; as water-lillies, candocks, reate, and bulWalton.


REAVE', v. a. Pret. reft. Sax. ɲæfian; Dan. ræve. To take away by stealth or violence. See BEREAVE.

Dismounting from his lofty steed, He to him leapt, in mind to reave his life.


Who can be bound by any solemn vow To do a murderous deed, to rob a man, To force a spotless virgin's chastity, To reave the orphan of his patrimony, And have no other reason for his wrong But that he was bound by a solemn oath?


But these men knowing, having heard the voyce Of God, by some meanes, that sad death hath reft The ruler heere; will never suffer left Their unjust wooing of his wife.

Chapman. Some make his meashy bed, but reave his rest. Carew.

REAUMUR (Renatus Anthony Ferchault, sieur de), a celebrated French philosopher, born at Rochelle in 1683. After the usual course of school education, in the place of his birth, he began a course of philosophy at Poitiers, and of civil law at Bourges; but soon relinquished the latter, to apply himself to mathematics, physics, and natural history. He repaired to Paris in 1703, and was received into the Academy of Sciences in 1708. From that hour he was wholly employed in natural history. The numerous discoveries he made in the various branches of science are too numerous to detail. He discovered the Turquois mines in the late province of Languedoc; and his improvement on the art of converting iron into steel was rewarded by a pension of 12,000 livres. It was owing to his endeavours that there were es

tablished in France manufactures of tin plates and of porcelain in imitation of china-ware. We owe to him also a new thermometer, which bears his name, and is pretty generally used on the continent. Reaumur's is a spirit thermometer, having the freezing point at 0°, and the boiling point at 80°. He died in the seventy-sixth year of his age, on the 18th of October, 1757. He bequeathed to the Academy of Sciences his MSS., and his collection of natural productions. His chief works are, a number of Memoirs and Observations on different parts of Natural History; printed in the collections of the Academy of Sciences. A large work printed separately in 6 vols. in 4to., entitled A Natural History of Insects; which is much esteemed.

REAUMURIA, in botany, a genus of the pentagynia order and pentandria class of plants; natural order thirteenth, succulentæ : CAL. hexaphyllous; petals five: CAPS. unilocular, quinquevalved, and polyspermous. Species two only, annuals of Syria.

REBAPTIZE', v. a. Fr. rebaptiser; re and baptize. To baptize again.

In maintenance of rebaptization, their arguments are built upon this, that heretics are not any part of the church of Christ. Hooker.

Understanding that the rights of the church were observed, he approved of their baptism, and would not suffer them to be rebaptized. Ayliffe's Parergon. REBATE', v. n. Fr. rebattre. To blunt;

beat to obtuseness.

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My flagging soul flies under her own pitch,
My senses, too, are dull and stupified,
Their edge rebated.

Dryden's Don Sebastian.
Their innocence unfeigned long joys afford
To the honest nuptial bed, and, in the wane
Of life, rebate the miseries of age.


REBATE, OF REBATEMENT, in commerce, a term much used at Amsterdam, for discount al

lowed on the price of several commodities, when the buyer, instead of taking time, advances ready money.

RÉBEC, or REBECK, a Moorish word signifying an instrument with two strings played on with a bow. The Moors first brought the rebec into Spain, whence it passed into Italy, and, after the addition of a third string, obtained the name of rebecca; whence the old English rebec, or fiddle with three strings.

Rebec, ribibe, and ribible seem to be different names of the same instrument, and are often indiscriminately used by Gower, Chaucer, and the more ancient bards.

As the head, or scroll-work, of old viols and violins used to be curiously carved, so seems to have been that of the rebec. Chaucer compares the face of an old woman, an old trot, to the head of a rebec. See the example above. REBECK, n. s. Fr. rebec; Ital. ribecca. A three-stringed fiddle. Brother, quod he, here wonneth an old rebekke, That had almost as lefe to lese her nekke As for to geve a peny of hire good.

Chaucer. Cant. Tales.

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REB'EL, n. s. & v. n. Fr. rebelle; Lat. REBELLION, n. s. rebellis. A revolter; REBELLIOUS, adj. one who opposes lawREBELLIOUSLY, adv. ful authority to act REBELLIOUSNESS, 7. S. in opposition to such authority: rebellion is the revolt or insurrection made: rebellious means opposed to lawful authority: the adverb and noun substantive corresponding.

From the day that thou didst depart out of Egypt, until ye came unto this place, ye have been rebellious against the Lord. Deut. ix. 7.

This our son is stubborn and rebellious, he will
not obey our voice.
Id. xxi. 20.

The merciless Macdonel
Worthy to be a rebel; for to that

The multiplying villanies of nature
Do swarm upon him. Shakspeare. Macbeth.
Boys, immature in knowledge,

Pawn their experience to the present pleasure,
And so rebel to judgment.

Such smiling rogues as these soothe every passion,
That in the nature of their lords rebels;
Bring oil to fire.

Id. King Lear.
He was victorious in rebellions and seditions of

Where one shewed him where a nobleman, that had rebelliously borne arms against him, lay very honorably intombed, and advised the king to deface the monument; he said, no, no, but I would all the rest of mine enemies were as honourably intombed. Camden.

Who could ever yet shew me a man rebelliously
undutiful to his parents that hath prospered in him-
self, and his seed?
Bp. Hall.
Armed with thy might, rid heaven of these rebelled.

Of their names in heavenly records now
Is no memorial, blotted out and razed

By their rebellion from the books of life. Id.
Bent he seems

On desperate revenge, which shall redound
Upon his own rebellious head.

How could your heart rebel against your reason?
How could my hand rebel against my heart?



thereby lost their happy state.
Part of the angels rebelled against God, and


Thou, with rebel insolence, didst dare To own and to protect that hoary ruffian; And, in despite even of thy father's justice, To stir the factious rabble up to arms. This is not disobedience but rebellion; 'tis disclaiming the sovereignty of Christ, and renouncing all allegiance to his authority.



Shall man from nature's sanction stray, A rebel to her rightful sway? REBELLION (rebellio), among the Romans, was where those who had been formerly overcome in battle, and yielded to their subjection, made a second resistance; but with us it is generally used for taking up arms traitorously against the king, whether by natural subjects, or others when once subdued; and the word rebel is sometimes applied to him who wilfully breaks a law. There is a difference between enemies and rebels. Enemies are those who are out of the king's allegiance: therefore subjects of the king, either in open war, or rebellion, are not the

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