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ART. IX.-(1.) Synopsis of the Contents of the International Exhibition of 1862. By ROBERT HUNT, F.R.S., F.S.S. Published with the authority of Her Majesty's Commissioners. Stanford. 1862.

(2.) Routledge's Guide to the International Exhibition. Routledge, Warne, & Routledge. 1862.

(3.) Official Catalogue of the Industrial Department. By authority of Her Majesty's Commissioners. Truscott & Co. 1862.

(4). The Popular Guide to the International Exhibition of 1862. By ED. MCDERMOTT, Esq. W. H. Smith & Son.

THERE is nothing new in the idea of an Exhibition of the Products of Industry, unless in its application internationally; and for this larger extension of an old practice in the domestic history of civilized States, Great Britain is wholly indebted to the loved and lamented Prince whose loss we still continue to mourn. There was something cosmopolitan and very catholic, in its best sense, in the nature and training of the late Prince Consort, to whom we are indebted for the first Exhibition. His best sympathies and affections were undoubtedly with England, his adopted country; a land which he wished to raise still higher in moral and material power, and international grandeur and mightiness. But Prince Albert was sufficient of a philosopher and a citizen of the world to regard other countries without jealousy or ill-will, and to know that it was impossible that this great nation could keep her position, or advance in progress in the elegant and industrious arts, in an age of immensely-increased intercommunication, unless she should periodically compare her artistical, textile, and manufacturing products and fabrics, her raw materials, machinery, and agricultural implements, with those of other nations. The deceased Prince was sufficiently of an antiquarian and an historian to know that the ancient and mediæval fair had been long for every European kingdom a species of domestic exhibition; while for some countries, and more especially for Germany and France, it had been an exhibition which exercised an influence not only advantageous to those, but on bordering states and kingdoms. For instance, at the earlier fairs of St. Denis, held more than seven centuries ago, the Saxons exhibited for sale their lead and their iron; the foreign Jews, jewellery and perfumery, articles which they then largely dealt in; the Bretons, honey and madder; the Spaniards, oil, wine, and tallow; and the Italians, the productions of their own favoured country and of some portions of the East, with

Exhibitional Fairs in France, Germany, and Russia. 203

which they had then a nearly exclusive trade. At the fair of Beaucaire, for which a patent was granted by Raymond, Count of Toulouse, so far back as 1217, it is recorded that Italians, Turks, and Armenians, exposed for sale to the value of six millions of merchandize, most of which subsequently found a ready retail vent on the banks of the Rhine, the Saône, and the Garonne, among the lively and versatile Gauls. In Germany and Holland, the Jahrmarkts, the Messe, and the Kermesse, all of which were great exhibitional fairs, played an important part in commerce and civilization; and the Jahrmarkts of Leipsic, Frankfort-on-the-Oder, Brunswick, and Nuremberg, were, in the middle ages, attended by the most considerable merchant princes of Italy and of Holland. The fair of Leipsic, indeed, still adds to the wealth and literary repute of Fatherland; for not merely do the booksellers and publishers of all Germany there congregate, to make purchases of books in every language and to settle accounts, but the gathering is also attended by the leading firms of the book trade of Europe and America, who come to purchase anything novel or marketable. Nothing has done more to increase the commerce and promote the prosperity and civilization of semi-civilized Russia than her Exhibitional Fairs, and foremost among them the fair of Nishni Novogorod, which may be called the Great Exhibition of hyperborean Russia. The bazaars erected for the accommodation of those who attend this fair, form, according to Dr. Lyall, the finest establishment of the kind in the world. The sales of iron and iron articles made at this gathering to natives and strangers usually amount to 10,000,000 roubles, and the sales of furs to 36,000,000 roubles. Captain Cochrane tells us that the value of the gross business done at Nishni is represented by so large a figure as 200,000,000 roubles; while a still later authority states that commodities are parted with representing the value of five millions sterling of our money. When the First Consul, subsequently the Emperor Napoleon, had shut out France, by a system of universal war, from the commerce of Europe, and thus excluded his country from a knowledge and inspection of foreign commodities and manufactures, he still saw the policy and vast importance of exhibitions of domestic industry; and first in 1801, subsequently in 1806, counselled by Chaptal, his Minister of Commerce, and others, gathered together in the Louvre the rich and varied products of all France. It was at the Exhibition of 1806 that the shawls of Ternaux, the muslins of Tarare, and the painted porcelain of Diehl, acquired such a repute that, in process of time, notwithstanding the prevalence of war, they became famous and worldrenowned.

The Bourbons, of the elder and the junior branch, continued these exhibitions of French industry, and down till the memorable year of 1848, the artistical and manufacturing genius and industry of France were improving under this process of exposure and criticism, in a building open, like our own Exhibitions of 1851 and 1862, on a money payment, to Frenchmen and to strangers. These facts were well known to the studious, reflective, and philosophic Prince who, till recently, stood in the highest place in our own country; and the late Prince Consort improved on them by a conception of his own, which had all the merit of an enlightened patriotism and a happy originality. In devising the Exhibition of 1851, Prince Albert gave to it a wholly cosmopolitan character. Aware of the energy, enterprize, and patient and persevering spirit of Englishmen, he invited the co-operation of all the nations of the earth at the original Exhibition, inaugurated eleven years ago. countrymen did not then shrink from rivalry and competition with Europe and the world. Though excellent in many things, Prince Albert well knew that the British manufacturer and handicraftsman was not perfect in all. In details of design, of form, of colour, of taste, and of proportion, there was still great progress to make, and it needed that this truth should be drilled into the minds and memories of our employers and workmen to guide and stimulate them. The result has been very apparent. In no decade of our history has general improvement in matters in which the British workman was admittedly deficient been so apparent as in the epoch from 1851 to 1861. Within twelve months after the first International Fair, this effect was so apparent, that the French Emperor and Government resolved to follow in the wake of England, and to inaugurate an International Exhibition at Paris, in 1855. It will be remembered that our Queen and her lamented Consort journeyed over to France to be present on this occasion, and their progress was recorded in a previous article of this journal, published seven years ago. There can be no doubt that the French Exhibition of 1855 effected in its way nearly as much benefit for France as that of 1851 for England. Since the period we speak of, the French have applied themselves more and more to the arts that are most useful and necessary to man, in which they were formerly deficient, and have made sensible improvements in machinery, cutlery, cottons, pottery, hardware, carriages, and railway plant; while we, long excelling in these handicrafts, have applied ourselves successfully during the last eleven years to the production of articles combining taste, form, colour, and intellect, See British Quarterly Review, No. xliv. October, 1855.

Captain Fowke-Difficulties Encountered.

205 thus proving that the ideas and conception of the original founder of the scheme of 1851 were excellent and practicable. Yet Prince Albert had to encounter great difficulties in organizing the first Exhibition, and considerable ones in organizing the second, of which we are speaking. There were not wanting those who, eleven years ago, talked of the unpracticalness of the scheme; and even after success had been assured to it, the great mass of London tradesmen did not very clearly see how the trades or staples of England were to be benefited by an Exhibition which was open to the whole world. Nor among the great masses of London retail tradesmen did the idea of the present Exhibition find much more favour or countenance. But, sustained by the enlightened opinions of the educated classes, the originator persevered in his wise and beneficent course, and the result is that there has risen up, as if by magic, a building on a much larger scale than that of 1851. The site on which it is erected, our country readers should be told, adjoins the Royal Horticultural Gardens at South Kensington. The ground on which the building stands belongs to the commissioners of the Exhibition of 1851, and was purchased by them out of the surplus funds arising from the proceeds realized by the first Exhibition. The designer and architect is Captain Fowke, of the Royal Engineers, and though his work has been criticised in a captious and censorious spirit by many of the organs of public opinion, yet we do not conceive that the architect is justly obnoxious to several of the objections which have been raised against the structure. When it is considered that the architect had to provide within a year, and a limit in point of expenditure, solid structures for picture galleries, securing the valuable works of art from all accidents of weather; that large spaces were necessary to be lighted in various ways for objects arranged in courts and galleries; that corridors, platforms, vestibules, and passage of intercommunication were also indispensable; that roomy spaces were required for machinery, and ample and convenient refectories and luncheon bars for refection, the difficulties imposed on the constructor will appear considerably more than ordinary. It should also be remembered that there was a limit as to ground space, as well as to cost, for the area of the building is enclosed within 16 acres, exclusive of the two annexes. The structure is rectangular in plan, having its largest façade facing the Cromwell Road. What an immense amount of room is afforded for exhibitional purposes, will be apparent when we state that the building, exclusive of the annexes, is 1,150 long by 500 wide, and 50 feet in height above the ground level. At the external appearance of the building, and more especially of

the domes, much bitter sarcasm and some pleasant banter have been levelled, both by English and French critics. But when it is considered that the main object of the founder of the Exhibition was to secure a safe repository for the wares and objects of art and industry of the whole world-in other words, a solid, spacious, commodious, and lightsome building, not to say a great international warehouse-most reflecting persons will, we think, agree that Captain Fowke has accomplished the purpose which the late Prince Consort and the commissioners had in view. That was a purpose with which architecture had little to do, except in relation to convenience and security. Why, we may inquire, should money be expended in adorning a structure intended to be used as an international bazaar or repertory merely? The contents accumulated within the building from every country and clime were really intended to be its chief, its only, and best decorations. The Kensington domes, however, so much cavilled at by the Parisian penny-a-liners, and by some cockney critics, of more smartness of style than soundness of judgment, and which shed an abundant light over the building, are, it should be stated, of larger diameter than any similar ones previously erected in Europe. The building of 1851 occupied nineteen acres, that of 1862 occupies more than twenty-six. The flooring space in 1851 was 989,784 square feet. In the present building there are 1,140,000 square feet; but as the machinery and agricultural implements are exhibited in wings built for the purpose, there are really 450,000 feet of flooring more in 1862 than in 1851. The greatest height of the building of 1851 was the centre transept 108 feet. The main nave running from end to end was 66 feet high by 72 wide. The total length of the first Exhibition building was 1,841 feet by 456 feet wide. The dimensions of the present are 1,152 long by 692 feet broad, exclusive of the annexes. The price paid the contractors in 1851 was £80,000, if the materials were returned, or £150,000 if the building were retained. In 1862 the contractors are to be paid in the first instance, £200,000, and £100,000 additional if the gross profits exceed £500,000, the figure reached in 1851. The decoration of the building was confided at the last moment to Mr. Crace, and considering the shortness of the time allowed him, the execution is creditable to his taste. The prevailing tint of the roof is lavender, which has a lively and agreeable effect. The projections of the pillars are painted in bright blue and red colours, which, placed in juxtaposition in a small building, would be garish and glaring. In this immense building, however, the effect is lightsome without being gaudy. Standing under either of the domes and

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