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take of the offering. At the conclusion of the repast, he repeated the usual benediction; and the courtezan, in return, presented the garden to the priesthood, and subsequently erected in it a wihára, which she gave to Budha.* She also renounced the world, became a priestess, and attained the state of a rahat.

17. The king of Ságal said to Nágaséna, "There are some persons in the world who present alms, and say at the same time, May this alms-offering be a benefit to my relatives who are dead, and have become prétas! Tell me, will their departed relatives receive any benefit from such an offering?" Nágaséna: "There are some prétas who receive a benefit therefrom, and others who will not those who are born in any of the 136 hells will derive no benefit from the offering or the rice that is presented; nor will those who are born in the déwa-lókas, or those who are born as animals. There are four kinds of prétas:-1. Wantásikás, who live countless ages in great sorrow, eating the most disgusting substances. 2. Khuppipásikas, that live a whole budhántara without tasting either meat or drink. 3. Nijjhámatrisnikas, that live in the hollow of decayed trees which have been set on fire. These three kinds of prétas derive no benefits from offerings; but there are others that may receive assistance therefrom." Milinda: "Then it will frequently happen that no benefit is derived from the alms that are thus presented; and they will thus be fruitless and vain." Nágaséna: "Not so; there is a man who takes fish, flesh, toddy, rice, and cakes to present to his relatives; but he is not able to find them. On this account, is the food lost that he has prepared? Does he not enjoy it himself? And it is the same with alms (in such instances as have been referred to); the giver receives the benefit." Milinda: "Be it so; the deceased relatives will in some instances receive benefit from the alms that are presented; but if I become a cruel

murderer, putting many persons to death without mercy, will my relatives in any way reap the reward of my evil actions ?" Nágaséna: "No." Milinda: "What is the reason of this difference? The reward of good actions is received by the deceased relatives, but the reward of evil actions is not; tell me the cause of this distinction?" Nágaséna: "You are asking a profitless question; it is just like asking why the sky does not fall, or why

When Fa Hian visited Wisála, the garden was yet in existence.


the stream of the river does not go upward rather than descend, or why men and birds have only two feet, whilst the beasts of the field have four; these are not proper questions at all for any one to ask." Milinda: "I do not make this enquiry merely to trouble you; I ask it that my mind may be relieved, and that others also who have doubts upon the subject may be instructed." Nágaséna: "The reward of merit may be divided, and a portion of it imparted to another; but that of demerit cannot. Just in the same way, water may be carried by bamboo spouts to a great distance, but the rocks and hills cannot be removed at will; the lamp may be fed with oil or grease, but it cannot with water; water taken from the pond fertilises the soil, but that which is taken from the sea cannot be used for the same purpose." Milinda: Will you explain to me how it is that the reward of demerit cannot be imparted to another? I am like a blind man; I want instruction." Nágaséna: "The reward of demerit is small and insignificant; that of merit is vast, and spreads to the déwalóka; and this is the reason why the one can be divided and not the other. A single drop of water cannot be made to spread over the space of ten or twelve yojanas; but a heavy shower fills the lakes, rivers, brooks, rills, and channels, and spreads over this space. And in like manner, demerit, on account of its littleness, cannot be received by another, whilst merit, because of its greatness, admits of participation." Milinda: "Whence is this greatness of merit derived?" Nágaséna: “A man gives alms, or keeps the precepts; by this means his mind is filled with satisfaction; again and again this satisfaction wells up within him, and he is induced to acquire a greater degree of merit; it is like a perpetual fountain, continually flowing over; but when a man does that which brings demerit, his mind becomes sorrowful, and he is deterred from pursuing the same course, like a river that is lost in the sand of the desert. It is in this way that merit increases and becomes great, whilst demerit is dimi. nished."



THERE are three sins of the body:-1. The taking of life, Murder (1). 2. The taking of that which is not given, Theft (2). 3. The holding of carnal intercourse with the female that belongs to another, Adultery (3).

There are four sins of the speech:-1. Lying (4). 2 Slander (5). 3. Abuse. 4. Unprofitable Conversation (6). There are three sins of the mind:-1. Covetousness (7).

2. Malice. 3. Scepticism (8).

There are also five other evils that are to be avoided:- -1. The drinking of intoxicating Liquors (9). 2. Gambling (10). 3. Idleness (11). 4. Improper Associations (12). 5. The Frequenting of Places of Amusement (13).

There are additional obligations that are binding upon particular classes of individuals, among whom may be reckoned: -1. The Parent and Child (14). 2. The Teacher and Scholar (15). 3. The Priest and Householder (16). 4. The Husband and Wife (17). 5. The Master and Servant (18). 6. The Friend (19).

There are Miscellaneous Advices and Admonitions (20) that form another section.

The Síla Precepts are almost limitless in their extent (21). The most celebrated are the ten Obligations of the Priest.

In the native works, certain terms are continually met

with, an understanding of which is necessary to a right acquaintance with Budhism. A few of the more important of these Terms are inserted, with their explanation (22).

1. The Taking of Life.

Pránagháta is the destruction of the life of any being, the taking of it away. The prána is here put for the being, but it is only by a figure of speech. In reality the prána is the same as the jíwitindra (the eighteenth rúpa-khanda, the principle of life. He who takes away this principle, whether it be done immediately or by instigation (by the body or by the speech) is guilty of this crime. He who takes away the life of a large animal will have greater demerit than he who takes away the life of a small one; because greater skill or artifice is required in taking the life of the former than of the latter. When the life of a man is taken, the demerit increases in proportion to the merit of the person slain; but he who slays a cruel man has greater demerit than he who slays a man of a kind disposition.

There are five things necessary to constitute the crime of taking life. 1. There must be the knowledge that there is life. 2. There must be the assurance that a living being is present. 3. There must be the intention to take life. 4. With this intention there must be something done, as the placing of a bow or spear, or the setting of a snare; and there must be some movement towards it, as walking, running, or jumping. 5. The life must be actually taken. (Sadharmmaratnakáré.)

Again, it is said, when any one injures a tree, or root, or rock, with the intent to take life, not knowing its nature; when any one takes life, knowing it is life that he takes; when any one intends to take life; when any one actually takes life, whether it be done by himself or through the instrumentality of another, he is guilty of this crime. (Milinda Prasna.)

Pránagháta may be committed by the body, as when weapons are used; by word, as when a superior commands an inferior to take life; or by the mind, as when the death of another is desired.

There are six ways in which life may be taken:-1. By the person himself, with a sword or lance. 2. By giving the com

mand to another. 3. By the use of projectiles, such as a spear, an arrow, or a stone. 4. By treachery, as the digging of pits and covering them slightly over, setting springs, or poisoning ponds. 5. By magical rites. 6. By the instrumentality of

demons. (Pújáwaliya.)

There are eight causes of the destruction of life:-1. Evil desire. 2. Anger. 3. Ignorance. 4. Pride. 5. Covetousness. 6. Poverty. 7. Wantonness, as in the sport of children. 8. Law, as by the decree of the ruler.

This crime is committed, not only when life is actually taken, but also when there is the indulgence of hatred or anger; hence also lying, stealing and slander, may be regarded in some sense as including this sin. (Sadharmmaratnakáré.)

Under certain circumstances one's own life may be given up,

but the life of another is never to be taken.

If the person who is killed is the person who was intended to be slain, the crime of murder has been committed; but if it is intended to take the life of a particular person, by throwing a dart, or javelin, and the weapon kill another, it is not murder. If it is intended to take life, though not the life of any particular person, and life be taken, it is murder. When a blow is given with the intention of taking life, whether the person who is struck die at that time or afterwards, it is murder.

When a command is given to take the life of a particular person, and that person is killed, it is murder; but if another person be killed instead, it is not murder. When a command is given to take the life of a person at a particular time, whether in the morning or in the evening, in the night or in the day, and he be killed at the time appointed, it is murder; but if he be killed at some other time, and not at the time appointed, it is not murder. When a command is given to take the life of a person at a particular place, whether it be in the village, or city, or desert, on land, or on water, and he be killed at the place appointed, it is murder; but if he be killed at some other place, and not at the place appointed, it is not murder. When a command is given to take the life of a person in a particular position, whether it be walking, standing, sitting, or lying down, and he be killed whilst in the position appointed, it is murder: but if he be killed whilst in some other position, and not in the position appointed, it is not murder. When a command is given

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