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just stated, that the lake-dwellers had already attained a certain standard of civilisation. If our space permitted, and if it fell within the scope of this treatise, nothing would be more interesting than to study fully the character of those remains. All we can do here, however, is to point out some of the evidences they afford of the condition of the colonists, so as to enable the reader to judge for himself whether or not they were likely to have been acquainted with the use of intoxicating beverages. That they lived contemporaneously with the urus, the wild progenitor of our domesticated cattle, and that they waged constant war with the bear and the wolf, is proved by the remains of those animals being found in considerable quantities. They had already acquired, too, the art of cooking food, as is testified by charred bones, grain, and fruit. They tilled the ground; for amongst the numerous remains of cereals some are undoubtedly cultivated varieties.1 They possessed domesticated animals, such as cows, pigs, sheep, and goats. Their rude dwellings, built upon piles in the lakes, to protect them from the attacks of wild animals, and from races of men more untutored than themselves, had some architectural pretensions. Their implements for domestic use, especially the pottery, were truly works of art, however primitive their manufacture, and those, along with their clothing, which was made of textile fabrics, point to a long antecedent experience in the industrial arts. But this is not all; for they knew how to utilise seeds from which oil is produced. A whole cake made from the seeds of the garden or opium
1 For full information, see abstract of the treatise on the plants of the lake-dwellings in Keller's book (cited), p. 336, where illustrations will be found of a great variety of plants in use at that early age.
poppy has been found at Robenhausen, in a lakedwelling in the peat moor on the southern side of the Lake of Pfäffikon,1 which had been pressed for oil, and was probably intended to be used by the inhabitants themselves, or else given to their domesticated cattle. And those ancient people, who lived in wooden houses, habited themselves in woven cloths, practised agriculture, and possessed some acquaintance with a rude kind of art, were also well acquainted with the grape, with various other descriptions of fruit, such as apples, pears, plums, and cherries, and with more than one variety of barley; for charred and dried apples and pears, stones of grapes, as well as of the fruits named (amongst many others), and whole ears of barley, have been discovered in greater or less quantities amongst these interesting remains of a pre-historic civilisation.
Whether or not, then, these primitive races had discovered, or were still ignorant of the existence of intoxicating beverages, surrounded as they were by so many natural products liable to alcoholic fermentation, we must leave the reader to judge for himself, and quitting now the region of surmise and speculation, we must ask him to accompany us whilst we set foot upon the firm ground of fact, as revealed in history and in popularly accepted tradition.2
1 Keller's Lake Dwellings, pp. 41, 342.
2 One of our leading ethnologists, Mr. J. Crawfurd, F.R.S., expresses the view, in a paper read by him before the Ethnological Society, March 10, 1868, that the discovery and art of manufacturing some kind of intoxicating drink may be said to be coeval with the first dawn of social development, for it has soon been made by barbarians of every race in possession of the requisite raw materials; it is mere wandering savages, he says, that have been found ignorant of it. The same author considers that the vine is indigenous in several parts of Western Asia and Southern Europe.
THREE SUBDIVISIONS OF THE HUMAN FAMILY
NOTHING can be more interesting and instructive than to study the drinking propensities of the earliest races of mankind, for it is impossible to consider those without at the same time becoming acquainted with their social customs, their family life, the tone of their religious thought, and much that is important in regard to their national history. In order to attain this object, we will adopt, generally speaking, the most recent classification of the great human family into the Aryan, the Semitic, and the Turanian groups, and will select one or more typical nations to represent each, for special consideration.
From the Turanian branch, with which we shall first deal, we propose in this chapter to single out the great Chinese empire for consideration, taking no account of the savage tribes of Asia and Polynesia, nor of the Lapps and Finns, who, roughly speaking, complete that subdivision of mankind.
Next we shall deal with the main branches of the Aryan family, the ancient inhabitants of India, Persia, and Central Asia; and in a later portion of the work,
their descendants in the empires of ancient Greece and Rome, and subsequently those of modern Europe and America, will demand and receive our attention. Lastly, we shall investigate the drinking habits of the Semitic family, the ancient Hebrews, the ancient Egyptians, and the followers of Mahomet.
The Chinese believe themselves to be the most ancient people in the world, and from the accounts which follow it will be seen that they may at least lay claim to a very early civilisation. Their greatest philosopher, whose name has been handed down to modern times as Confucius, lived in the fifth century before Christ, his death being fixed at 478 B.C., and one of his disciples, Mencius, who was almost as highly honoured as himself, flourished about two centuries later, dying 288 B.C. These two great men left behind them many original precepts and adages, but they are also believed to have edited and perfected a series of books or "Kings" which had been handed down from generation to generation long before their time; and it is from those books that we shall be able to collect information in regard to the drinking habits of ancient China, and their influence upon the destinies of the people. But although it will be anticipating somewhat in regard to time, we cannot help thinking that our readers would like to know something concerning the habits of the great teacher himself, whose name is most familiar to European ears as one of the regenerators of our race.
Confucius was a highly cultivated literary man of his time, whose instruction was reverently listened to by princes and nobles, but who led a simple and abstemious life. His dress was very unostentatious, and he
CONFUCIUS: HIS DRESS AND HABITS.
is said to have avoided the bright colours which were usually worn by men of high rank in his day. Some amusing details are given of his apparel.1 His nightdress, we are told, was always half as long again as his body, which is of itself a proof of the advances that had been made in civilisation by the Chinese at that early date, for in our country, even in the thirteenth century or later, kings and queens are said to have slept in a state of complete nudity.2 Once every month Confucius donned his court robes to pay his devoirs to his prince, and he was also very particular as to the vestments which he wore during sacrifices. He had all the dignity of his race, and his mode of bowing and of conversing with his superiors and inferiors is described as courteous and appropriate. When not occupied in court or other ceremonies, his countenance was smiling and affable. Of his domestic habits we have ample details. He usually ate rice, with small portions of meat and fish, but he never tasted those if they were becoming putrified, from which it would appear that "gamey" food was not unknown to the epicures of his day. The amount of drink of which he partook was not restricted, but he never indulged so far as to "disturb his understanding," a circumstance which naturally leads us to infer that hard drinking was then no uncommon practice at the tables of the rich.
The teachings of Confucius relate chiefly to the higher branches of ethics, the means of attaining perfection, and the rules of good government. They treat
1 Confucius et Mencius, par M. G. Pauthier, p. 152. Paris: Charpentier.
2 Wright's Homes of Other Days, p. 269. Trübner & Co.
3 Confucius et Mencius, p. 153, et seq.: "dejà entrées en putréfaction."