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which descended from above, and conformed itself to every palate.

4. The fairest productions of human wit, after a few perusals, like gathered flowers, wither in our hands, and lose their fragrancy: but these unfading plants of Paradise become, as we are accustomed to them, still more and more beautiful; their bloom appears to be daily heightened; fresh odours are emitted, and new sweets extracted from them. He who has once tasted their excellences, will desire to taste them again; and he who tastes them oftenest, will relish them best.

5. And now, could the author flatter himself, that any one would take half the pleasure in reading his work, which he has taken in writing it, he would not fear the loss of his labour. The employment detached him from the bustle and hurry of life, the din of politicks, and the noise of folly, Vanity and vexation flew away for a season; care and disquietude came not near his dwelling.He arose, fresh as the morning, to his task; the silence of the night invited him to pursue it; and he can truly say, that food and rest were not preferred before it.

6. Every psalm improved infinitely upon his acquaintance with it, and no one gave him uneasiness but the last: for then he grieved that his work was done. Happier hours than those which have been spent in these meditations on the songs of Sion, he never expects to see in this world. Very pleasantly did they pass; they moved smoothly and swiftly along: for when thus engaged, he counted no time. They are gone, but they have left a relish and a fragrance upon the mind; and the remembrance of them is sweet.



a Mon-arch, môn'-nårk, a king, af Flex-i-bil-i-ty, flêks-è-bîl'-ê-tè, sovereign. pliancy, compliance. b An-nals, ân'-nålz, histories digest-g Len-i-ty, lên’-è-tė, mildness, mered in the order of time.

cy, tenderness.

duct, behaviour.

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c De-nom-i-na-tion, dé-nom-è-nà' -h De-port-ment, dè-pòrt'-mênt, con

shin, title, appellation.

d De-lin-e-ate, ̄ ̄ dé-lîn'-è-åte,

paint, describe.

toi Trans-mit, trâns-mit', to send from

e Con-cil-iate, kon-sil'-yåte, to gain!

over, reconcile.

one place to another.

Character of ALFRED, king of England.

1. THE merit of this prince, both in private and publick life, may, with advantage, be set in opposition to that of any monarcha or citizen, which the annals of any age, or any nation, can present to us. He seems, indeed, to be the complete model of that perfect character, which, under the denomination of a sage or wise man, the philosophers have been fond of delineating, rather as a fiction of their imagination, than in hopes of ever seeing it reduced to practice: so happily were all his virtues tempered together; so justly were they blended; and so powerfully did each prevent the other from exceeding its proper bounds.


2. He knew how to conciliate the most enterprising spirit with the coolest moderation; the most obstinate perseverance, with the easiest flexibility; the most severe justice, with the greatest lenity;s the greatest rigour in command, with the greatest affability of deportment;" the highest capacity and inclination for science, with the most shining talents for action.

3. Nature also, as if desirous that so bright a production of her skill should be set in the fairest light, had bestowed on him all bodily accomplishments; vigour of limbs, dignity of shape and air, and a pleasant, engaging, and open countenance. By living in that barbarous age, he was deprived of historians worthy to transmit his fame to posterity; and we wish to see him delineated in more lively colours, and with more particular strokes, that we might at least perceive some of those small specks and blemishes, from which, as a man, it is impossible he could be entirely exempted.



a Cal-um-ny, kál'-um-né, slander,(h Fru-gal-i-ty, frù-gâl'-d-te, thrift, false charge.

good husbandry, savingness.

b U-nan-i-mous, yù-nân'-ê-mus, be-li Av-a-rice, av'-a-ris, covetousness, ing of one mind.

e De-tract-or, de-trâkt'-ůr, one whok calumniates.

d in-vec-tive, in-vêk'-tiv, abusive,

e Pan-e-gyr-ick, pân-ne-jêr'-rik, an
eulogy, an encomiastick piece.
f An-i-mos-i-ty, an-ne-mos'-se-te,
vehemence of hatred.
g Te-mer-i-ty, té-mer'-è-tè, rash-
ness, folly.


Sal-ly, sal-le, quick egress, flight. Tol-er-a-tion, tôl-ar-à-shun, per


m Fac-tion, fak'-shun, a party in a

In Pru-dence, proỏ'-dense, wisdom
applied to practice.
Con-tro-ver-sy, kôn trỏ-vềr-sẻ,
dispute, quarrel.

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p Ap-plause, ap-pl'wze', approba- the state of being advanced. tion loudly expressed. r Sur-mount, sår-mount', to over

q Ad-vance-ment, åd-vânse'-mônt, come, surpass.


1. THERE are few personages in history, who have been more exposed to the calumnya of enemies, and the adulation of friends, than queen Elizabeth; and yet there scarcely is any, whose reputation has been more certainly determined by the unanimous consent of posterity. The unusual length of her administration, and the strong features of her character, were able to overcome all prejudices; and, obliging her detractors to abate much of their invectives, and her admirers somewhat of their panegyrics, have, at last,in spite of political factions, and what is more, of religious animosities, produced a uniform judgment with regard to her conduct.

2. Her vigour, her constancy, her magnanimity, her penetration, vigilance, and address, are allowed to merit the highest praises; and appear not to have been surpassed by any person who ever filled a throne: a conduct less rigorous, less imperious, more sincere, more indulgent to her people, would have been requisite to form a perfect character. By the force of her mind, she controlled all her. more active, and stronger qualities; and prevented them from running into excess.

3. Her heroism was exempted from all temerity; her frugality from avarice; her friendship from partiality; her enterprise from turbulency and a vain ambition. She guarded not herself, with equal care, or equal success, from less infirmities; the rivalship of beauty, the desire of admiration, the jealousy of love, and the sallies of anger.

4. Her singular talents for government were founded equally on her temper and on her capacity. Endowed with a great command over herself, she soon obtained an uncontrolled ascendency over the people. Few sovereigns of England succeeded to the throne in more difficult circumstances; and none ever conducted the government with so uniform success and felicity.

5. Though unacquainted with the practice of toleration,' the true secret for managing religious factions," she preserved her people, by her superiour prudence," from those confusions in which theological controversy had involved all the neighbouring nations; and though her enemies were the most powerful princes of Europe, the most

active, the most enterprising, the least scrupulous, she was able, by her vigour, to make deep impressions on their state; her own greatness meanwhile remaining untouched and unimpaired.

6. The wise ministers and brave men who flourished during her reign, share the praise of her success; but, instead of lessening the applause due to her, they make great addition to it. They owed, all of them, their advancement to her choice; they were supported by her constancy; and, with all their ability, they were never able to acquire an undue ascendancy over her.

7. In her family, in her court, in her kingdom, she remained equally mistress. The force of the tender passions was great over her, but the force of her mind was still superiour: and the combat which her victory visibly cost her, serves only to display the firmness of her resolution, and the loftiness of her ambitious sentiments.

8. The fame of this princess, though it has surmounted the prejudices both of faction and of bigotry, yet lies still exposed to another prejudice, which is more durable, because more natural; and which, according to the different views in which we survey her, is capable either of exalting beyond measure, or diminishing, the lustre of her character. This prejudice is founded on the consideration of her


9. When we contemplate her as a woman, we are apt to be struck with the highest admiration of her qualities and extensive capacity; but we are also apt to require some more softness of disposition, some greater lenity of temper, some of those amiable weaknesses by which her sex is distinguished. But the true method of estimating her merit, is, to lay aside all these considerations, and to consider her merely as a rational being, placed in authority, and intrusted with the government of mankind.


keep back.


a Def-er-ence, dêf'-êr-ẻnse, regard, ƒ De-tain, de-tàne', to withhold, respect. b De-base, dé-base', to reduce, sink, g Drudge, drůdje, to labour in mean adulterate.


c Cringe, krinje, bow, servile civili-h Toil, toll, to labour, weary.

ty, to shrink.

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Cas-u-al-ty, kâzh'-ù-ál-té, acci


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The slavery of vice.

1. THE slavery produced by vice appears in the dependence under which it brings the sinner, to circumstances of external fortune. One of the favourite characters of liberty, is the independence it bestows. He who is truly a freeman is above all servile compliances, and abject subjection. He is able to rest upon himself; and while he regards his superiours with proper deference, neither debases himself by cringing to them, nor is tempted to purchase their favour by dishonourable means. But the sinner has forfeited every privilege of this nature.

2. His passions and habits render him an absolute dependent on the world, and the world's favour; on the uncertain goods of fortune, and the fickle humours of men. For it is by these he subsists, and among these his happiness is sought; according as his passions determine him to pursue pleasures, riches, or preferments. Having no fund within himself whence to draw enjoyment, his only resource is in things without. His hopes and fears all hang upon the world. He partakes in all its vicissi-tudes; and is moved and shaken by every wind of fortune. This is to be, in the strictest sense, a slave to the world.

3. Religion and virtue, on the other hand, confer on the mind principles of noble independence. The upright man is satisfied from himself." He despises not the advantages of fortune, but he centres not his happiness in them. With a moderate share of them he can be contented; and contentment is felicity. Happy in his own integrity, conscious of the esteem of good men, reposing firm trust in the providence, and the promises of God, he is exempted from servile dependence on other things.

4. He can wrap himself up in a good conscience, and look forward, without terrour, to the change of the world. Let all things shift around him as they please, he believes that, by the Divine ordination, they shall be made to work together in the issue for his good: and therefore, having much to hope from God, and little to fear from the world, he can be easy in every state. One who possesses within himself such an establishment of mind, is truly free.

5. But shall I call that man free, who has nothing that is his own, no property assured; whose very heart is not his own, but rendered the appendage of external things,

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