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His,, Levities" are by their title-exempted from the severities of criticism; yet it may be remarked in a few words, that his humour is sometimes gross, and seldom spritely.

Of the moral poems the first is the,, Choice of Hercules," from Xenophon. The numbers are smooth, the diction elegant, and the thoughts just; but something of vigour is still to be wished, which it might have had by brevity and Compression. His,, Fate of Delicacy" has an air of gaiety, but not a very pointed and general moral. His blank verses, those that can read them may probably find to be like the blank verses of his neighbours. Love and Honour" is derived from the old ballad,,,Did you not hear of a Spanish Lady?“ I wish it well enough to wish it were in rhyme.

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The,, School - mistress,“ of which I know not what claim it has to stand among the moral works*) is surely the most pleasing of Shenstone's performances. The adoption of a particular style, in light and short compositions, contributes much to the increase of pleasure: we are entertained at once with two imitations of nature in the sentiments, of the original author in the style, and between them the mind is kept in perpetual employment.

The general recommendation of Shenstone is easiness and simplicity; his general defect is want of comprehension and variety. Had his mind been better stored with knowledge, whether he could have been great, I know not; he could certainly have been agreeable.


JOHN DRYSDALE wurde zu Kirkaldy in der Grafschaft Fife den 29sten April 1718 geboren, und bezog, nachdem er

*) Dies Stück steht nämlich unter der Rubrik der Gedichte Shenstone's, welche die Ueberschrift: moral pieces führt.

sich gute Schulkenntnisse erworben hatte, die Universität Edinburg (1732). Hier zeichnete er sich vorzüglich durch seine schnellen Fortschritte in der Griechischen Sprache aus; aber auch in den theologischen Wissenschaften erwarb er sich nicht gemeine Kenntnisse, und man ertheilte ihm (1740) sehr gern die Erlaubnis zu predigen. Bald darauf wählte ihn James Banatyne, ein Geistlicher zu Edinburgh, zu seinem Gehülfen, und die glänzenden Rednertalente des jungen Drysdale rechtfertigten seine Wahl. Dieser zog nämlich durch seine mit ungewöhnlicher Sorgfalt ausgearbeiteten Predigten bald die Aufmerksamkeit auf sich, so wie er sich durch seine anderweitigen Geschicklichkeiten, durch Unbescholtenheit des Wandels, durch Herzensgüte und ein einnehmendes Betragen die Freundschaft vieler angesehenen Männer erwarb. 1748 ward er Prediger zu Kirkliston in West-Lothian. Ein Vorurtheil gegen ihn erschwerte einigermassen seine Wahl;\ man machte nämlich seinen Predigten den Vorwurf, dafs sie zu viel Moral enthielten. 1763 ward er Prediger in Edinburgh und 1765 von dem Marischal College of Aberdeen zum Doctor in Divinity ernannt. Man bekleidete ihn seit der Zeit mit mehreren andern geistlichen Ämtern, zum Beweise der Achtung, welche man für ihn hegte. Zuletzt führte er den Titel:/ one of the ministers of Edinburgh, one of his Majesty's Chaplains and Principal Clerk to the Church of Scotland. Er starb den 16ten Junius 1788. Seine Predigten erschienen im Jahre 1793 zu Edinburgh in zwei Bänden in 8. unter dem Titel: Sermons by the late reverend John Drysdale, und gehören zu den vorzüglichern Produkten der neuern Kanzelberedsamkeit der Engländer. Vor denselben befindet sich


Account of the author's life and character by Andrew Dalzel, aus welchem die hier mitgetheilten Notizen geschöpft sind. Eine Übersetzung der Predigten ist zu Wien 1796 in 2 Bänden in 8. erschienen.


Psalm CVII, 22.

Let them sacrifice the sacrifices of thanksgiving and declare his works with rejoicing.


we can be duly affected to God for any one of his benefits, we must carefully consider its nature and value, that

* Vol. II. Sermon 16.


Die Predigt, aus welcher hier ein

we may have a just estimation of its greatness, and conse quently of the goodness of the Giver; for, according to our opinion of the grace and favour conferred, we shall be more or less touched with gratitude on account of it. In order then to have our hearts sufficiently impressed with a sense of the goodness of God, in restoring to us the blessings of Peace at this time, it will be proper for us to reflect a little on the advantages of peace joined with liberty. Now, of all the outward blessings of life this may justly be reckoned the greatest. It is this that adds to the value of all others; and without it they lose much of their importance to mankind. It is peace, in conjunction with liberty, that renders our possessions and enjoyments properly our own, that encourages industry and promotes the growth of useful arts and science; and which secures correspondence amongst men.

Surely we need not paint the horrors of war, in order to make us value and love peace. It is our peculiar hap¬ piness that for many years we have known but little of these horrors within our own borders. But let us not be like the thoughtless man who, when possessed of health, squanders it away, little sensible of its value till he loses it, and then bemoans his folly when it is too late. Now, while the blessing is present, let us value it as it deserves; and what worldly blessing can compare with it? This alone gives scope and free course to equity and justice. In the midst of the rage and tumult of war, the feeble voice of justice is ill heard, laws are, in a great measure, silent, and an armed multitude are too apt to give a loose to passion and exceed the bounds of humanity and right. All is at the mercy of the conqueror; and both conquerors and conquered devour the fruits of the good man's labour. What avails it in this situation, that a man has great possessions, when he knows not how soon they may be destroyed and torn from him? I speak not, my brethren, of those men who, for disturbing the order of an equal government, are deprived justly of their property and the protection of that government they have injured, like undutiful children who are justly disinherited for their ingratitude and disobedience to a kind parent; but I *peak of the innocent and quiet subject, who becomes a prey

Bruchstück aufgenommen worden ist, wurde am 29sten Julius 1784, als dem zur Feier des Friedens bestimmten Tage, gehalten.

to force and violence, Cast your eyes abroad to those countries which have unhappily been the seat of war and all the desolation that attends it. In that situation the industrious labourer works not for himself, but for a cruel invader; the honest and peaceful citizen is often oppressed by violence, and forced to seek for shelter in a barren solitude, accompanied with his family; or obliged to leave these behind him to be, with his possessions, wasted and ruined, with small hope of relief, - sometimes without the poor comfort of uttering their complaints! The free correspondence of men is broken; there being neither safety within nor without. The enjoyments of social life are all interrupted by present oppression or the continual anxious fear of its approach. Mourning reigns instead of joy, and the spirit of heaviness banishes all cheerfulness from the abodes of men. Grief and sorrow for the loss of friends fill many hearts, while others are tormented with dreadful apprehensions of the like fate to their friends, exposed to the same danger. Little does it import a man that he has health and strength; they only enable him to fly from the desolation that rages round about him; and even this he often cannot do, or cannot chuse to do, when the view of a helpless family fills his heart with unutterable pain, and makes him resolve to share in the common fate, rather than be safe alone. Fears and suspicions, jealousies and mutual distrust alarm the breast of every man. Confidence is all destroyed that mutual confidence which is the great bond of society, and the foundation of all friendship and brotherly love.

How ought we then to praise God for the blessings of peace! which secures to us our friends, our families and property, restores love and confidence to mankind, banishes anxiety, fear and mourning, and makes the cry of the oppressed to be heard no more. Then only can we be said to enjoy any thing when we are secure in the possession of it; but the fear of losing it embitters all its sweets, and renders us often more unhappy than if we possessed it not. What is life without peace, but a continual dying? The pangs of death are felt at every separation from beloved objects, and at the apprehension of such separation. But when peace with its healing wings comes to the relief of men, it restores them to real life, to full confidence, and to a secure enjoyment of all that is dear. Blessed then are the peace-makers

for they shall be called the children of God," but cursed is the man who delights in war; unnatural is he, who, wantonly or without cause, rouses its fury in a peaceful land.

But farther: Peace not only secures our possessions and enjoyments, but supports and encourages industry. Industry can never flourish where the fruits of its labour are not secured to it. Who will toil for a stranger, or an invader? Who will submit to painful labour, if he hopes not to reap the fruits of it? Protection and security can alune persuade men to application, but war takes away protection and safety. Besides the discouraging of assiduity and diligence, it withdraws many hands from being usefully employed for the happine's of society. It is peace that encourages and alone gives opportunity for every man to apply to his proper occupation, in exercising which all jointly conduce to the public welfare, to the supply of each others wants, and to the increase of mutual happiness.

Farther still: It is peace that alone promotes the growth of arts and sciences. How much these conduce to the glory, honour and real advantage of a state is evident to all. What makes us to differ from the rude inhabitants of uncultivated countries, or from our own ancient and barbarous forefathers, but the progress of arts and knowledge' among us? How many real advantages of life has the growth of arts produced? What a variety of conveniences has it "furnished which were unknown to the rudeness of former ages? How much is the satisfaction and real enjoyment of life heightened, by having the mind stored with wisdom, the knowledge of nature and the ways of God? How pleasing is this, compared with the ignorance and superstition of darker times! Now, though it cannot be said that peace alone first began and carried forward these things, yet certain it is that without peace, they cannot continue flourishing and vigorous; but must fade and decay. Knowledge can be acquired by those only who have leisure, and who live free from care and disturbance, advantages which are not to be had during the continuance of war and public confusion. Nay, even when a country has not the war raging in its own bowels, but sends its force abroad, the attention both of the public and of private men must be withdrawn from the pursuit of science, and fixed chiefly on the event f war, wherein all are concerned, and by which every thing is in hazard! While war

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