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viewing with increasing gratitude, at every stage of this progressive work, the wonders of redeeming love, to sing the new song, saying: "Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof; for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us to God by thy blood, and hast made us unto God kings and priests:"--and finally to participate in that heavenly silence, in which God is felt to reign over all, with that power and majesty which the language of saints and angels cannot adequately convey.



I HAVE already shewn in preceding articles, that we believe justification to consist of two parts, "or to have a twofold consideration." It has also been fully stated, that we believe that the first part consists in what Jesus Christ did for man, in removing the incapacities of the fallen state, and placing in every human heart that seed of grace, which is the first principle and efficient cause of salvation. The second part consists in what he does for us, in us, and this forms the subject of the ensuing article.

As the inward operations of the spirit of truth are submitted to, in the convictions for sin, and desire after redemption, which it produces in the heart, the work of sanctification and justification advances, for they go on together.

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The apostle very clearly sets forth the successive advances of this great work: But ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God." 1 Cor. vi. 11.

The first operations of divine grace on the heart are generally of a tendering kind. It is true that the mind may be powerfully broken in upon, and the just judgments of God for sin may be awfully revealed: but this does not take place unless there has been a slighting of the day of merciful visitation, and the offers of redeeming love. But even when the rebellious and backsliding are thus met

with judgments mixed with merey, as there is a willingness wrought to submit to the purifying dispensation, the heart is brought into a state of great tenderness.

This state of Christian experience is beautifully illustrated by the baptism of water to repentance: and is the very thing typified by that baptism, as used by John, to whose ministration it peculiarly belonged. And this answers to the language of the apostle, who represents washing as the first process in the great work of renovation.

Under this dispensation, the subject not only becomes washed, and cleansed from the more obvious defilements, such as (figuratively speaking) water can reach but as repentance is experienced, and the melting, soothing effusions of divine love, the soul becomes powerfully attached to its Redeemer. And thus it becomes prepared to bear a more purifying dispensation, which answers to the baptism of fire; wherein all those deep defilements that were not reached by the former cleansing are removed; the dross, the tin, and even the reprobate silver, are consumed, and sanctification takes place.

And not till we have passed through these purifying dispensations, are we "sanctified, and justified, in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God." Then it is that old things are done away; and all things become In this state the soul is united to God, in a holy fellowship and communion, and stands as justified, or accounted just; its former transgressions being forgiven, done away, and remembered no more.


The judgments of God are not according to the decisions of men, who sometimes justify, or account men just, when there is no real change effected, but a mere exemption from the consequences of guilt. But, as sin produces ccrruption and defilement, these must be cleansed and removed, before the subject can be accepted or accounted as justified :—and this cleansing from the defilements of sin, is sanctification.

Various opinions have existed among the different denominations of Christians on the subject of justification. While some have imagined it to depend on good works, others rejected works altogether, and supposed it to depend on the merit and righteousness of Christ imputed to us.

And others again imagine our justification and acceptance to depend on an irrevocable decree, existing from all eternity.

The Society of Friends do not exactly coincide with any of these opinions.

As we stand in the fall, or unregenerate state, we possess no merit, or power of ourselves, by which we can obtain acceptance, or make reconciliation with God: much less can we have any thing to make atonement for sins committed. God requires nothing but our duty.—Any thing more than duty, could not be acceptable to him. This leaves nothing wherewith to balance the account of duties omitted or crimes committed. But by the coming and offering of Christ, the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life." Here it is shown that this natural incapacity is removed; that this free gift is extended to all men; and that, if not obstructed by disobedience, it ultimately leads to justification of life."


This grace and gift to us, is the pure love of God, by which we are called and invited to come unto him, and by which we are drawn in love, and gratitude, and obedience to him.

This love of God, through Jesus Christ, is the very spirit of reconciliation, and the only possible medium, by which we can become united to him. But in its first extension to us, we are no further justified than to receive the capacity to salvation, and the offers of forgiveness of sins that are past, and to stand acquitted from them by the atonement of Christ, supplying what was lacking on our part, on condition of our obedience to the manifestations of his spirit. As these manifestations are obeyed, and repentance and the laver of regeneration passed through, with the various baptisms and purifying operations of divine grace in us, the work of sanctification is effected. And as we are sanctified, so we are justified. Nor does complete justification take place, in moral agents, any other way. We may indeed be sanctified in part, and justified in part; for as this is not, generally, an instantaneous work, so there are many intermediate stages between the beginning and completion of this important change.

As we possess no power or capacity of our own for any good thing, so we cannot pretend that our own right hand

can save us.

All the willings and runnings of our will, avail nothing. "By grace we are saved, through faith, and that not of ourselves, it is the gift of God." But though it is by this alone that we are saved-though we can claim nothing as due to us-but, on the contrary, are bound to acknowledge after all, that " we are unprofitable servants," we have done no more than was our duty to do, and this, by the help of the Spirit of God, producing the will, and giving ability to do the deed; yet as this divine principle of Light and Life becomes the governing and predominating power in us, it brings forth works of righteousness, as well as a state of sanctification. Good works are the fruits

of this divine principle, as said the apostle : 66 The fruit of the spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance." And thus also, the same apostle, in another place, says: By the grace of God, I am what I am."

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And as our beneficent Creator, in his inscrutable wisdom and goodness, has constituted us with the freedom of will, to choose the principles and motives by which we will be governed, (for though he produces in us the will, and gives ability to perform his own good pleasure, yet he grants us the privilege to make that will our own,) as this is realized in us, and works of righteousness are produced as the fruit of the spirit, we not only become sanctified and justified; but also, in some sense, objects of rewards-not by virtue of what we have done in our own wills, but in the divine will.

When we reflect, that not only the ability for every good word and work, but even the most secret inclination of heart to serve God, is the effect of his own divine influence on us; when we further bring to mind the disappointments, the miseries, and vexation of spirit, which are the genuine effects of sin, on the one hand; and the pure, substantial enjoyments of peace and animating hope, which are the portion of the righteous in this life—we may exclaim, in the language of the poet :

Astonishing beyond astonishment!

Heaven the reward for heaven enjoyed below."

To conclude "Let none be so bold as to mock God,

supposing themselves justified and accepted in the sight of God, by virtue of Christ's death and sufferings, while they remain unsanctified and unjustified in their own hearts, and polluted in their sins; lest their hope prove that of the hypocrite, which perisheth. Neither let any vainly imagine that they can, by their own works, or by the performance of any ceremonies or traditions, or by the giving of gold or money, or by afflicting their bodies in will worship and voluntary humility, or by their striving to conform their way to the outward letter of the law, flatter themselves that they merit before God, or draw a debt upon him, or that any man or men have power to make such kind of things effectual to their justification; lest they be found foolish boasters, and strangers to Christ indeed. But blessed for ever are they, that, having truly had a sense of their own unworthiness and sinfulness; and having seen all their own endeavours and performances fruitless and vain, and beheld their own emptiness, and the vanity of their hopes, faith, and confidence, while they remain inwardly pursued and condemned by God's holy witness in their hearts; and so, having applied themselves thereto, and suffered his grace to work in them, are become changed and renewed in the spirit of their minds, passed from death unto life, and know Jesus arisen in them, working both the will and the deed; and so having put on the Lord Jesus Christ, in effect, are clothed with him and partake of his righteousness and nature. Such can

draw near to the Lord with boldness, and know their acceptance in and by him; in whom, and in as many as are found in him, the Father is well pleased." Barclay's Apology, Prop. 7.



It has been shown in the preceding article, that as the grace of God which brings salvation is received, and its teachings obeyed (for it is always accompanied with power-) as, under its blessed influence, instructing and


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