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divine image was the predominating part of the human character in the beginning, it was said: "In the day thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die." And this sentence was accomplished, in the loss of all that constituted that image. In the loss of the divine life, death actually passed upon him, in the day of his transgression. (Vide Barclay's Apol. Prop. 4. Phipps on Man, ch. 1.) He became fallen, degenerate, and dead, retaining nothing superior to his animal and rational faculties; and even these were depraved.

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"Adam, by his fall, lost his glory, his strength, his dominion, by which he could easily have withstood the devil; and came under great weakness, whereby the enemy's temptations had a ready access to him, and he became very obnoxious to fall under them. And so all his posterity are come under the same weakness and obnoxiousness to the enemy's temptations, who influenceth them, by entering into them, and powerfully inclining them to sin. And this malignant influence is the seed of sin in all men, whereby they become obnoxious, by reason of the fall." Barclay, fol. ed. pp. 768, 310. Thus, in the language of the apostle, by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned." Nor do we question that the visible creation suffered some change, in consequence of the lapse of him to whose accommodation it was so remarkably adapted. In the sentence pronounced upon Adam, it was said: "Cursed is the ground for thy sake”. thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee." Gen. iii. 17, 18. Thus we believe, that the whole posterity of Adam is affected by his fall; but we do not believe that it is with guilt, but with infirmity, and a proneness to sin. For though we do not ascribe any whit of Adam's guilt to men, until they make it theirs by like acts of disobedience, yet we cannot suppose that men who have come of Adam naturally, can have any good thing in their nature, as belonging thereto, which he, from whom they derived their nature, had not himself to communicate to them.

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If then we may affirm, that Adam did not retain in his nature, as belonging thereto, any will or light, capable to give him knowledge in spiritual things, then neither can his posterity. For whatsoever good any man does, it proceeds not from his nature, as he is man, or the son of Adam,


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but from the Seed of God in him, as a new visitation of life, in order to bring him out of his natural condition. So that, though it is in him, it is not of him. But we deny the doctrine of original sin;' and cannot suppose that sin is imputed to infants, [till they actually commit it;] for this obvious reason, that they are by nature the children of wrath, who walk according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the hearts of the children of disobedience.' Here the apostle gives their evil walking, [and not any thing that had been committed by Adam,] as the reason of their being children of wrath. And this is suitable to the whole strain of the gospel, where no man is threatened or judged, for what iniquity he hath not actually wrought." (Vide Barclay's Apol. Prop. 4.)

Thus, we conceive it contrary to the attributes of the Almighty, his mercy, and his justice, to charge any of his creatures with guilt, for offences in which they had no agency. It is even contrary to the simplest principles of right and wrong, which we consider binding on men; and we dare not charge the divine character with being thus far below that standard of justice, which is set up for human actions.

Though the posterity of Adam could not be chargeable with guilt on account of his transgression, yet he being dead, as to the divine image, could neither renew himself up again into his former condition, nor transmit to his posterity what he had not himself. Thus they became objects of redeeming love. Even those who had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, stood in need of redemption out of that state of utter incapacity in which they were involved; and which the apostle calls death." Rom. v.


For this great object a remedy was provided. Even the sentence pronounced upon them, contained the promise of the Seed which should bruise the serpent's head. Gen. iii. 15. This redeeming principle began then to operate, not only bringing man out of this state of death and incapacity, but producing the fruits of righteousness. By this, Abel offered a more acceptable offering than Cain. By this, Enoch walked with God-and all the patriarchs and prophets were instructed in divine wisdom, and finally obtained acceptance. For our acceptance is not by nature, or in

our natural state, as the posterity of the first Adam; but in and through Christ, the second Adam, the Lord from heaven, who is called 66 a Quickening Spirit." 1 Cor. xv. 45, 47. The same apostle says to the Ephesians: “And you hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins”—and again he says" and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others. But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;) and hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus: that in the ages to come, he might show the exceeding riches of his grace, in his kindness towards us through Christ Jesus : for by grace ye are saved through faith; and that not of yourselves it is the gift of God; not of works, lest any man should boast." Eph. ii. 1, 3-9.

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The innocence of children is sometimes mentioned, as an evidence of their being in the same condition that Adam was in before his fall; and in confirmation of this idea, that passage of Scripture is adduced, in which it is related that 'Jesus called a little child unto him, and set him in the midst of them, and said: Verily, I say unto you, except ye be converted, and become as little children, ye cannot enter into the kingdom of heaven. Whosoever therefore shall humble himself as this little child, the same is greatest in the kingdom of heaven." Matt. xviii. 2, 3, &c. On referring to Mark ix. 33, where the same event is recorded, it appears that the disciples had then given way to feelings of ambition and contention; " for they had disputed by the way, who should be greatest." To correct their views, our Lord adopted the mode of reproof that has been mentioned, using those expressions so remarkably adapted to the feelings which they had just indulged: "If any man desire to be first, the same shall be last of all, and servant of all." Mark ix. 35. "" Whosoever therefore shall humble himself as this little child, the same is greatest in the kingdom of heaven." Matt. xviii. 4. This was the very thing they had been disputing among themselves, and they were now informed that it was not to be expected but in humility.

But taking the passage in its utmost latitude, it will go no farther than to show the necessity of a freedom from sin, which we, who have become moral agents, must expe

rience, through the operations of grace, producing repentance, and obtaining forgiveness, &c.

But innocence alone cannot constitute the divine image: for, as it would be highly injurious to the divine character, to assert that God is no more than an innocent Being, so it must be evident that the divine image does not consist in innocence alone.

No one will pretend that the little child is in a sensible communion with God, or clearly sensible of his divine influence; which was the case with Adam. Again; the desires of the infant, in its purest state of innocence, are directed to objects of sense to the gratification of its creaturely appetites. But such was not the case with Adam, in his primitive state, nor is it the case with the true christian.

And as the text does not contain any allusion to the primitive condition of man, so, on the most close examination, it cannot be made to prove that infants are in that condition, or that they are not, in common with the rest of the human family, objects of the redeeming love of Jesus Christ, and partakers of the benefits derived from him.

If we impartially reflect on the present condition of the human race, we shall find, in the pagan darkness which overspreads a large portion of the world, a striking evidence that the natural state of man is very different from that in which Adam was placed in the beginning. That portion of mankind have not the knowledge of God, his attributes, and their own relations to him, either by intuition, or by their reasoning faculties. If every individual were furnished with the same knowledge in divine things, that Adam had, and admitted into the same near relation to the Deity, and communion with him, there could be no such thing as a nation of pagans: for even if all should ultimately fall, still there would be a portion of the life of every individual, in which he would know God, as Adam did in the beginning. Neither, if reason and our rational faculties could naturally lead up into this exalted state, would it have been said by the apostle, that the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him; neither indeed can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned." 1 Cor. ii. 14. Nor should we find this declaration realized in all conditions, as to outward

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circumstances, from the highest refinements of civilized life, to the most degraded state of uncultivated nature.

Those who are occasionally found in heathen countries, with enlightened minds, have arisen out of darkness and ignorance, by the operations of the grace of God that brings salvation, and which the apostle expressly declares has appeared to all men. They become such by a slow progress of improvement, and of that change which is called regeneration, and the new birth-and not as an original state. Thus these heathen nations illustrate what human nature is, and show the insufficiency of those faculties which constitute it, to renew them into the divine image. They show that human nature itself, is fallen, is low and grovelling—still tending downward, "as the sparks fly upward.”

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But the human family was not left destitute, in this miserable condition: "In this was manifested the love of God towards us, because that God sent his only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through him. Herein is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins." 1 John iv. 9, 10. For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly." Rom. v. 6. 66 Therefore, as by the offence of one, judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so, by the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life." Rom. v. 18. Here the discase and the remedy are brought into contrast by the apostle, to show that the latter was exactly adapted to the former. As, in the fall, the capacity of enjoying communion and fellowship with God was lost; so, through Jesus Christ, it is restored. As, in the first, we were unable to do any good thing, but were naturally joined and united to evil, forward and propense to all iniquity, servants to the power and spirit of darkness; so, in the remedy provided, we are so far reconciled to God by the death of his Son, that we are put into a capacity of salvation, having the glad tidings of the Gospel of Peace offered unto us; and we are called and invited to accept the offered redemption. In which respect we understand these Scriptures: He slew the enmity in himself. He loved us first. Seeing us in our blood, he said unto us, Live. He who did no sin, his own self bare our sins in his body on the tree; and died for our sins, the Just for the unjust. (Vide


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