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geographical and climatic changes which could only have taken place under an immense lapse of time. These changes, according to Sir Charles Lyell, occurred in the following order

"Firstly, a pre-glacial continental period, towards the close of which the forest of Cromer flourished, and the climate was somewhat milder than at present.

"Secondly, a period of submergence, when the land north of the Thames and Bristol Channel, and that of Ireland, was reduced to an archipelago. This was a part of the Glacial Age, and icebergs floated in our


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Thirdly, a second continental period, when there were glaciers in the higher mountains of Scotland and Wales.

"Fourthly, the breaking up of the land through submergence, and a gradual change of temperature, resulting in the present geographical and climatal conditions."

Those who desire to learn more on this most interesting subject must read Professor Boyd-Dawkins' work on Cave Hunting, and his Early Man in Britain, where they will find maps illustrative of the various geological and geographical changes traceable in Britain, and also Mr. Pengelly's account of the exploration of Kent's Cavern, given in the Philosophical Transactions for 1878, and in the Transactions of the Devonshire Association.

We have mentioned more than once the difference observable between the earliest flint implements known, and those of a later date, and for the benefit of those not deeply versed in the mode of manufacture of these tools of ancient man, we will here give Mr. Pengelly's description of those found in Kent's Cavern. He says"While all the stone tools of both the cave-earth and the breccia were paleolithic-that is, of rough unpolished stone-and were found inosculating with remains of extinct mammals, a mere inspection shows that they belong to two distinct categories. Those found in the breccia-that is, the more ancient series -were formed by chipping a flint nodule, or pebble, into a tool, while those from the cave-earth-the less

ancient series-were fashioned by first detaching a suitable flake from the nodule or pebble, and then trimming the flake-not the nodule-into a tool. It must be unnecessary to say that the making of a nodule-tool necessitated the production of flakes and chips, some of which were, no doubt, utilized. Such flakes, however, must be regarded as accidents, and not the final objects the workers had in view." 1

As there are many who do not know the distinctive marks of genuine flint implements, it may be well to add here the description of them given by General PittRivers. "The recognized marks of human agency which constitute a flint flake, as all pre-historic archæologists are aware, consist of a combination on the same flint of a bulb of percussion on the smooth face, one or more facets at the back, caused by blows delivered in the same direction as that by which the bulb on the other face was produced, and on the top of the flake, contiguous to the bulb, the small residuum of the surface of the core from which the flake was made." 2

It will thus be seen that something more than a fanciful shape is necessary to convince archæologists of the genuineness of a flint implement; but in addition to the shape and marks of percussion, the depth in the soil, the geological strata and surroundings have all to be taken into account in determining the age of these primitive implements; besides which, there is a certain smoothness and patina belonging to the ancient implements which cannot be imparted to modern imitations, although, as is well known, the form can be easily produced by an expert, and many of those manufactured by Flint Jack have been palmed off upon novices, although they would never deceive those accustomed to the feel of the genuine implements. It was of course the (perhaps) accidental discovery that flint lends itself readily to a certain cleavage, that caused

1 See Report of British Association, 1883. Address of Mr. Pengelly to Section D., Anthropology.

2 Journal of Anthropological Institute, May 1882, p. 389. Address to Section D., Anthropology, Proc. Brit. Ass., 1883.

it to be employed so largely by early man. Certain it is that large manufactories of flint tools existed at certain spots where flints were abundant, that they were quarried with picks of stag's horn, and often carried immense distances, probably as articles of commerce. Mr. Worthington Smyth found an ancient workshop of these implements among the gravels of the Thames valley, and absolutely succeeded in replacing the flakes struck off a certain core. Doubtless even in those remote times there were skilled workmen whose tools were in especial request, and others who could only make rough implements for their own use, such as would hardly be recognized as implements, and some of these rough specimens discovered in Brixham Cavern have been the cause of much contention; but as others of undoubted human manufacture, and of equal or greater antiquity, have been discovered in other caverns, the genuineness of these is of small moment.



Ancient and Orthodox Belief incompatible with Modern Discoveries-Darwin's Theory at present unproved-French Anthropologists-Broca's Progression of Types-Ancient Beliefs-Gradual Advance of Man-Great Chasm between Man and Ape The most Ancient Skulls-The Dolichocephalic (long) and the Brachycephalic (round) Types co-existentMonogenists and Polygenists-Continental Discoveries of Pliocene Man not credited by English Anthropologists-Lyell and Darwin on Man's probable Age and Birthplace-His slow Dispersal.

THE ancient and orthodox belief as to man's origin was, that he was created in Central Asia in an advanced state of civilization, and that, in consequence of the Fall, some of the descendants of Adam became the ancestors of the degraded races of modern times, whilst other and more favoured races, of the same stock, especially those connected with the Hebrews, have been permitted by the Divine will to rise to the height of civilization. It is difficult to reconcile this belief with the significant fact that rude paleolithic implements have been found in Egypt, India, and Palestine, as well as in Western Europe; neither does it explain how it is that, in the very lands which, by geological evidence, and by the existing remains of an almost extinct fauna and flora, are reasonably supposed to be the oldest of our present terrestrial globe, there do we also find man existing in the lowest state of barbarism.

If man originated in Central Asia in a civilized state only six or eight thousand years ago, how-without


believing in numberless creations of different species of the human race-are we to account for his distribution over the world in various stages of progress, and in so many varieties? Especially, how can we imagine him to have got to Australia in the state in which he was first found, without canoes or any means of transport, yet thousands of miles from the original centre of migration? It is evident that this position could only have been attained when the arrangement of land and water was wholly different from that at present subsisting.

If, however, instead of looking upon primeval man as a civilized being, spreading from some point in Central Asia, and gradually becoming degraded to the lowest point of barbarism in various remote lands, we follow in the track of most modern naturalists, and suppose him in origin to have been little above the brutes, the question arises, whether the slight barrier which separates him from the higher apes can be thrown down, and the Darwinian theory proved in its entirety?

Darwin, as is well known, traces man to a semihuman form, arboreal in habits, hairy, with pointed ears and a tail, as remote from any present variety of ape as from civilized man; but this semi-human being is at present purely hypothetical; geologists and naturalists are agreed that no archaic form yet discovered brings man appreciably nearer to the anthropoid apes which would seem zoologically to be his first cousins, descendants with him from this common semi-human progenitor.

French anthropologists have indeed found many Simian characteristics in the remains of the very early pre-historic races of France, and a gradual diminution of these Simian characteristics with an advance in time and in civilization. Dr. Broca wrote " I hope you have been able to follow with me from Moustier to Cro-Magnon, from Cro-Magnon to Laugerie Haute, and the Gorge d'Enfer, and from there to the three stations of Eyzies, Laugerie Basse, and La Madelaine, the progressive evolution of an intelligent race, advancing little by little from the most savage state to

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