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of notice, being in many places fragments of human bone, but of these I cannot treat at present.

Since writing the above, I have been favoured with a sight of a book recently published by Herr Joëst, on the subject, and if the Japanese tattooing represented in the plates is not supplemented by painting, it must be conceded that the Japanese are the most skilful tattooers in the world. The patterns resemble those on Japanese silks, and might readily be mistaken for a tight-fitting garment of that material. Such, indeed, seems to be the design, as it is only in use, we are told, among the lower orders, and takes with them the place of garments.



Importance of the Subject of Pre-historic Commerce-Cups of Similar Pattern in Mycenae, Corneto, and Cornwall-The Golden Armour of Mold-Lunulæ in Ireland and in Corneto-Buttons and Fibula-Were they Manufactured in Ireland, and of Irish Gold ?-Identity of Various Articles in Ireland and Etruria-Irish Legends-Firbolgs and Leather Bags of Miners-Gold the Attraction to the EtruscansIngots of Gold in Irish Bogs-The Tumuli of New Grange and Dowth possibly Etruscan-Vallancy's Reference to Etruscan Games-Mr. Walhouse on Pre-historic Commerce with India--The_Beryl--Barter-Jade and Amber--Mr. Boyd-Dawkins on Etruscan and Phoenician Trade-routes.

THE subject of commerce, as carried on in pre-historic times, is of interest alike to the anthropologist, the archæologist, and the student of folklore and legends; for, if the extent of that commerce and its routes could be well defined, much that is obscure in the unwritten history of mankind would become clear; since it is evident that variations in physical type, in language, in religion, in manners and customs, in legends and in the arts, would arise from a longcontinued intercourse between barbarous and civilized, or semi-civilized races.

In the absence of written history, this intercourse can be traced only through legends, such as those recorded in the earlier part of this volume, or by the vestiges discovered in tombs, in the refuse-heaps known as kitchen-middens, or in the remains of long-buried cities destroyed by the hand of Time, by some sudden natural calamity, or by the inroads of enemies; and it 1 Journal of Anthropological Institute, August 1884.

"the males are mostly marked with cicatrizations on the chest and shoulders," in the form of circular spots about the size of half-a-crown, which are often continued down the back in two lines meeting in the middle, and these marks appear to be assumed only at adult age, but "the women are all tattooed, with rings round the eyes and all over the face, and in diagonal lines over the upper part of the front of the body, the lines crossing each other so as to form a series of lozenge-shaped spaces." This tattooing is done with short cuts, probably with obsidian flakes, being coloured indigo blue, but it is scarcely visible at a distance, and does not form coloured patches as in the Fijian women and Samoan men.1

The Solomon Islanders also tattoo in this manner with short cuts.

In Timor Laut, Mr. Forbes tells us, "both sexes tattoo a few simple devices, circles, stars, and pointed crosses, on the breast, on the brow, on the cheek, and on the wrists; and scar themselves on the arms and shoulders with red-hot stones in imitation of immense small-pox marks, in order to ward off that disease." But, he adds, "I have, however, seen no one variolamarked, nor can I learn of any epidemic of this disease among them."2 It may therefore be interesting to compare these marks with those described above as in use in the Admiralty Islands, which they seem to resemble.

We turn now to the other species of tattooing, being that most commonly known by that name, in which a pattern is first drawn and afterwards pricked into the flesh, various colours, but chiefly indigo blue, being rubbed into the wounds, thus forming indelible marks. This mode of adornment is found very widely spread, but it reaches its culminating point in New Zealand, where it may be said to attain the position of a fine art, the tattooing for each part of the face being known 1 H. N. Moseley 'On Admiralty Islands,' Anthrop. Journ., May 1877. 2 Anthrop. Journ. August 1883, p. 10.

by a separate term. The blue dye used by the Maories in tattooing is made from the soot obtained by burning the heart of certain trees.1 The designs consist of curved lines, which frequently cover the entire face, even extending over the eyelids. The process is extremely painful, and can only be done by degrees, so that years are occupied in completing the operation, the instruments employed being of sharp human bone. Tattoo marks were looked upon as signs of dignity and denoted a warrior.2

The nearest approach to the New Zealand tattooing appears to be that practised among the Nagas of India, of whom Col. Woodthorpe writes, "they would be goodlooking as a rule, but for the tattooing which in some cases make the faces almost black; in others the tattooing is blue, and then the bare portion of the face, especially in those of fair complexion, appears pink by contrast. The tattooing on the face is called ‘Ak,' and consists of four continuous lines carried across the forehead, round and underneath the eyes up to the nose, back over the cheeks, and round the corners of the mouth to the chin; rows of spots follow the outside lines, and two fine lines mark out the nose, in a large diamond space. "3 Some of the Naga tribes do not tattoo the face, but only the breast, shoulders, back, wrists, and thighs. The women are also tattooed more or less, but among the Angamis and other Eastern tribes, we find very elaborate designs, consisting of lines on the breast, from which proceed eight lines to the waist, gradually narrowing to a point; the thighs are covered with close vertical lines, with horizontal lines on the calves. This curious tattoo, which has the

1 Mr. Kerry-Nicholls in Anthrop. Journ., November 1885.

2 It has been said, and probably with truth, that the tattooing of the bodies of chiefs and warriors was for purposes of identification, in case the head should be cut off by the enemy in battle, and this is particularly noticeable in New Zealand, where we are informed that every mark or line tattooed on the face of a chief is repeated on the body.

3 Colonel R. G. Woodthorpe, R.E., Anthrop. Journ., February 1882, p. 208.

appearance of tight-fitting breeches, extends to Borneo; and there is in the British Museum a painting from "Head Hunters of Borneo," representing a Tring priestess thus adorned. Of this curious ornament, Colonel Yule writes "The practice of tattooing has been too generally diffused to build anything on its existence. But there is an application of it so peculiar and remarkable, that it is worth while to notice its coincident existence among races both of the continent and of the islands. This consists in covering the skin from the waist to the knee with dark embroidery; in fact tattooing breeches upon the body. In spite of a thousand years at least, perhaps much more, of Indian religion and influence, every male Burman is thus adorned. In Borneo among certain tribes, the women have precisely the same decoration."1

In New Guinea the Motu women are very elaborately tattooed in geometrical patterns. Some of the men are also tattooed, but in this case it denotes, as in New Zealand and among the Nagas, that they are warriors, and have slain one or more enemies; and Mr. Lawes says, "It is no uncommon thing to hear men quarrelling, and one saying to the other, Who are you that you should talk? Where are your tattoo marks? Who have you killed, that you should speak to me?” In New Guinea, the tattooing is done by marking out the pattern in lamp-black and then puncturing the skin by lightly tapping a thorn on it. Tattooing seems formerly to have been in almost general use among the Indians of North America, but is now almost confined to the Haidahs of Queen Charlotte Islands and Alaska; it exists also among the Eskimo, and Greeley reports meeting a boat filled with Eskimo from the west of Davis Strait, one of whom was tattooed. The tattooing of the Haidahs differs from that of most other races, the patterns consisting chiefly, if not wholly, of animal forms instead of geometrical patterns; these animal forms are the totems of the tribe, and are repeated on the pillars erected before the door of the chiefs, but they are con1 Anthrop. Journ., February 1880, p. 294.

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