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could not mean human beings; and it therefore follows, that the author of the Sibylline book could not have taken the expression from the book of Daniel, since he not only applies it to men, but finds a fanciful reason for its adoption, in the actions of the persons to whom he alludes.

The context of this passage of Enoch shows how the misapplication of this term may have arisen, since the offspring of the Watchers are there mentioned as men; and thus the united evidence arising from the general similarity of -the two passages, from the incomplete state of copy, in which an omission has occurred, and from the use of the name of Watchers, with a derivation which does not really belong to it, all combine to assure us that these lines of the Sibyl must have been taken from one of these books, under the name of Enoch.


The Sibylline verses which follow those which I have transcribed, contain an account of the slaughter which should occur in the generations succeeding that which had been already mentioned; while, in the book of Enoch, the passage last quoted is continued by an account of the

mutual slaughter of the offspring of the Watchers; thus adding another point of similarity to those of which I have already taken notice.

In the second Sibylline book* another instance occurs, in which also it appears, that several lines must have been imitated from Enoch.

“ Ηνικα δ' αθανατου θεου αφθιτοι αγγελτηρες


Ερακιηλ, Ραμιηλ, Ουριήλ, Σαμιηλ, Αζαηλ τε

“ Αυτοί επισταμενοι οσα τις κακα προσθεν ερεξεν

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“But when the immortal angels of the Eter"nal God, Erakiel, Ramiel, Uriel, Samiel, and



Azael, themselves knowing how many evil

things each of mankind had already done,"


If these names are compared with those which occur at the 6th and 7th pages of the translation of Enoch, it will be seen that they are all to be found there; while the construction of the names is, of itself, a sufficient proof that they are of Hebrew origin.

In Enoch, the words are as follows: "Then "Michael and Gabriel, Raphael, Surayal, and

* Ed. Opsopæi, p. 203.

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Uriel, looked down from heaven, and saw the

quantity of blood which was shed upon earth, "and all the iniquity which was done in it,'


But in the Sibylline book, although the names above-mentioned are given as being those of the angels of God, they appear to have been taken indiscriminately from among the names both of good and bad angels, mentioned in Enoch; while the use of the name of Azael, or Azazel, as that of a good angel, is conclusive as to the writer's ignorance of Hebrew tradition; since this is the very name which, even from the time of Moses, had been known to the Hebrews, as associated with sin in the scape-goat.

The commentators have, I believe, considered the word by, Azazel, "to be compounded of "ty caper, and t abiit;" and a tradition is generally referred to concerning a mountain, in the neighbourhood of Sinai, which went by this name, as that from whence the scape-goat was cast down.

However this may be, it is sufficiently apparent, from the manner in which the name is used in Enoch, in accordance with Hebrew tradition,

as applied to one of the fallen angels, that in the book of Enoch, the original of these two passages is to be found; since no one acquainted with the etymology of the name which he was using, could have applied it to one of the chief angels of God. It may be remarked also, that in the Greek version of those fragments of Enoch, in which this passage is contained, an enumeration of the attributes of God, in power and justice, immediately follows; and this happens also in the Sibylline book; while, in the translation of Enoch from the Ethiopic, another short passage intervenes. Thus it appears probable, that these lines were taken from the Greek version of Enoch.

In the next page of the second book follow some lines, which appear also to have been derived from the same source.

“ Και τας εν πελαγεσσιν απωλεσε κυμα θαλασσης

“ Ηδ' οποσας θηρες και ερπετα και πετεηνα,


Θοινησαντο, ολας ταυτας επι βημα καλεσσει.”

"Then those whom in its billows hath the sea
"Destroyed, and whomsoever the wild beasts,
"Or serpents, or the vultures have devoured,
"Each shall he call, to stand before his throne."

The parallel passage of Enoch is subjoined.

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"And it shall be, that those who have been

destroyed in the desert, and who have been "devoured by the fish of the sea, and by wild

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beasts, shall return and trust in the day of "the elect one."

It will hardly be imagined that the combination of the fish of the sea, the wild beasts, and the creatures peculiar to arid countries, could, in both of these passages, be fortuitous.

Near the end of the second book †, the following lines are found, as part of a description of the happiness of the righteous:

"Κ'ουκ ετ' ερει τις ολως, νυξ ηλθεν, ουδε μεν αυριον, “ Ουκ εχθες γεγονεν, ουκ ηματα πολλα μεριμνων


Ου δυσιν, ανατολην, ποιήσει γαρ μακρον ημαρ,

“ Τοις και ο παντοκρατωρ Θεος αφθιτος αλλο παρεξει, Ευσεβεσιν οποταν Θεον αφθιτον αιτήσονται.”


"None shall say night hath come, nor morrow cometh,
"Nor days have passed; no days of toiling care
"No sunset and no sunrise, one vast day,

"God ruling all eternal, shall ordain,

"For thus the righteous shall beseech the Lord."

In Enoch we find, "Nor shall the days of "the saints be numbered, who seek for light

* Trans. p. 65.

† Ed. Opsopæi, p. 212.

Trans. p. 58, 59. Sib. Orac.

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