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therefore Peckham himself, two years before, had 'intreated 'all exempt religious priests that they should freely comply 'with this ordinance [which related to Prayers for the Dead]; 'or at least do by their own authority ordain it to be observed. They are to know that we will thank them for their good'will, and shall lament to find them otherwise disposed.' Here, then, we discover a class of priests wholly exempt from diocesan and metropolitan authority. Forty-five of such peculiars now exist in the Diocess of Winchester, and they were formerly much more numerous. But for the section in the Act just specified, all these 'exempt' priests might have set it at defiance. The Ordinary of a peculiar did so defy many a bishop and archbishop, who in ancient times sought their happiness in quietude and not in contention. By the above proceedings, however, the entire priesthood were subdued.

The Second Act of Uniformity was in the year 1552. It made very many alterations in the former book, some of them very important; but not one of them was equal to the change now made in the words used at delivering the elements to the communicants. These contained sentiment and doctrine, rather than a mere form of words, and expressly taught that the Eucharist was restricted to a commemorative solemnity.

The Third Act of Uniformity dates A.D. 1558. Elizabeth re-enjoins the second book of her brother, Edward VI., with the form of the Litany altered and corrected, and two 'sentences added in the delivery of the Sacrament to the com'municant.' The Queen restored the words Edward had omitted in his second book, and united them to the words he had used in his first book. Why restore such words? 'Because it 'appears to have been the persuasion of the Queen and her council that in the important question of the Eucharist too 'much had been done in the reign of Edward VI. in the 'way of innovation; that the mysteries had been impugned by excluding words that might suggest though they do 'not necessarily involve, the doctrine of the real presence.** What this real presence means is beyond our knowledge, nor do we find that Episcopalians can aid our ignorance on this point. But either Cranmer had been right in what he said, or Elizabeth was wrong. As left in the second book of Edward, the doctrine of the real presence was neither suggested nor involved, but all mysticism of that sort was expressly excluded: as Elizabeth enjoined it, the obscurity returns; for the words she employed (and they are still retained) do more than 'suggest,' they declare * Cardwell's Revision of the Liturgies (Oxford), page 34.

The Act of Uniformity of 1662.


the mystery intended to be in the service, and that at a time when, of all others, the thoughtful communicant is certain to imbibe a sentiment which he cannot disassociate from the solemnity in which he is engaged.

The Fourth Act of Uniformity came into operation A.D. 1662. It linked all the three preceding ones into itself, and thus formed the crowning point of a distinct class of legislative acts that had spread over 113 years. It reimposed subscription to the Thirty-nine Articles of Elizabeth; and that for a purpose which will presently appear.

The grave charge brought in this Act against some of the ministers of the Church was, that by 'great and scandalous 'neglect in the use of the Liturgy enjoined by' Elizabeth, they had helped to bring about schisms and factions, to the great 'decay and scandal of the reformed religion of the Church of 'England.' But what if this charge can be turned against the accuser? Who had injured the Reformation-Elizabeth, who carried back the Church to the use of words in the Liturgy which the matured judgment of Cranmer and his compeers had expunged, because they contained and sanctioned the doctrine of a real presence-or the men who had neglected to use such Liturgy simply because it had given a peculiar sanction to the Church authorities of their day in their determined efforts to restore as much of the old Roman element as possible? The charge recoils upon this last Act of Uniformity, and cannot, by any force of construction, be made to apply to the 2,000 ministers who threw up their preferments rather than become Romanized to the extent proposed.

It was conformity to the Doctrine, more than conformity to the Liturgy of Elizabeth, that was sought. That was the reason why her Thirty-nine Articles were to be subscribed anew. Now, what is the fact? Elizabeth did more than restore words in the Liturgy which Edward had expunged; she fell back upon a doctrine which Edward, in his Articles, had repudiated. The doctrine was that of the Opus Operatum. His Article reads thus: 'Sacraments have a wholesome effect and operation; [and yet 'not that of the work wrought, as some meh speak; which word, 'as it is strange and unknown to Holy Scripture, so it engen'dereth no godly, but a very superstitious sense]. But they that 'receive the Sacrament unworthily purchase to themselves 'damnation, as St. Paul saith.' How reads Elizabeth's Article ? She begins as did Edward; goes on as he did until she comes to the words we have enclosed in brackets. All these she omits, and then concludes as Edward had concluded. His renunciation of the Opus Operatum she puts to sleep. The Queen and her

advisers knew full well that in dropping the renunciation, the old Canon of Peckham in 1281* revived, and that not by induction, but by virtue of a positive statute † of Henry VIII., which had declared that the canons then in force to be now still in force as they were before the making of the Act.' This law was known; Elizabeth and her advisers must have known it; and by a secret, but almost surreptitious, method of proceeding, 'the reformed religion of the Church of England' was thus made to retain the real presence doctrine. This was indeed the second tenet of that class which she restored. The real pre'sence' and the Opus Operatum' must ever run pari passu. They are theological twins, and are always seen in company with each other.

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It may be said that these observations apply to 1558 as well as to 1662. Doubtless they do, but to a greater extent and with more cumulative force to the latter than to the former. Indeed, the three preceding Acts of Uniformity reached no further than an enjoined use of prepared prayers, and heavy penalties for uttering an open word in derogation, depraving, or despising any part of the book; whereas the last Act prescribes not use only, and not only reinforces all the penalties contained in the other Acts, but demands 'assent and consent to 'all and everything contained in' the book. And still more, assent and consent to' all such things as are now 'prescribed therein. So that the men of this period were tied up to exact terms, and, in addition, were made to forswear the constitution of their own Church, the authorities of which had never before, during all its historic and theological changes, 'prescribed' belief in the ceremonies ordained. And still more, such assent and 'consent' to both use and belief, was solemnly' to be declared in the presence of the congregation, made at the same time that the Articles 'ex animo' were professed as the rule and standard of faith. The ex animo' relative to the Articles would be construed to apply to the Book of Common Prayer, and lead to the conclusion that, as from his soul, the priest believed every word in the standard of faith, so, from his soul, he both believed and would use every word prescribed as to practice. The cord that had previously been drawn around the altar, had proved elastic, a chain is therefore substituted; and to render the process more stringent and humiliating, the men now required to wear this chain were even to declare that from their hearts they believed no wrong to have been done either to them or their Church, in their being compelled to bear the weight thus laid upon them, or feel dishonoured by this newly-invented and * Quoted in page 64. † 25 Henry VIII., ch. xix. sect. 7.

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Mountain Adventure.

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'prescribed subjection. We quit,' said they, rather than 'conform. And, according to the constitution of their Church, they carried their 'Orders along with them, which 'Orders,' by the same constitution, they could confer upon others, either with or without the presence of a bishop.

We content ourselves with simply stating these matters of fact, and leave our readers to make their own application and use of them..

ART. IV. (1.) The Alps; or, Sketches of Life and Nature in the Mountains. By H. BERLEPSCH. Translated by the Rev. LESLIE STEPHEN, M.A. London: Longman & Co. 1861. (2.) Sketches of Nature in the Alps.. By FRIEDRICH VON TSCHUDI. London: Longman & Co. 1856. (3.) Mountaineering, in 1861. A Vacation Tour. By JOHN TYNDALL, F.R.S., Professor of Natural Philosophy in the Royal Institution of Great Britain; Author of the Glaciers of the Alps.' London: Longman & Co. 1862. (4.) Peaks, Passes, and Glaciers; being Excursions by Members of the Alpine Club. Second Series. Edited by EDWARD SHIRLEY KENNEDY, M.A., F.R.G.S., President of the Club.. In Two Volumes. London: Longman & Co. 1862.

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MOUNTAINEERING has now become a sort of fashionable pastime. The existence of a society for the exploration of Alpine cliffs and glaciers is a significant feature of the age. Had the great geographical problems of the last few centuries been still unsolved, we should probably propose to settle them by means of clubs, or, if likely to produce money, by means of joint-stock companies, with limited liability. We should have associations for the discovery of America, the fountains of the Nile, the north-west passage, or the circumnavigation of the globe, as it is possible that we may soon have clubs for the investigation of islands like Iceland, or of continents like Africa. There is, however, a peculiar charm about mountain adventure, not only for the philosopher, who climbs into a new world, where science has a thousand questions to ask; or the poet, who finds richer food for his fancy than the prose levels of life can afford; but even for the Cockney tourist, prouder of his Richmond Hill than a Swiss of his Jungfrau ; or the Yankee traveller, who looks upon Vesuvius as lost for want of a Barnum, and wonders why

the 'Italian Government don't put Pompeii into proper repair.' In what this charm consists it might be difficult to explain. Much of it is undoubtedly physical. A man must be in good bodily trim to scramble up steep rocks, and pick his path over slippery ice and treacherous snow. He must have plenty of vigour within him to hoist his own frame, particularly if it be one of portly dimensions, to a height of 14,000 or 15,000 feet above the margin of the sea. The Alps, indeed, would lose half their glory if we could reach their summits in a sedan chair. When, therefore, a person is in splendid muscular condition, the mere exercise of his energies in an atmosphere untainted by the impurities of the plains must occasion a species of exhilaration which of itself is sufficient to inspire him with a passion for crags and precipices. To those also whose stock of strength may be smaller, or whose habits of life may be sedentary, mountain air and mountain travel soon impart an elasticity of spirit and (shall we say it?) a ferocity of appetite which are perfectly delightful. We can vouch for one individual, who, having lost the sense of hunger for many years, and eaten his meals, as he alleged, rather from a feeling of duty to his stomach than from any pleasure in the operation, re-discovered the faculty whilst wandering in Switzerland, and came back protesting that, like the French gourmand, he could almost devour his father, if he had only such sauce as Alpine oxygen to enliven his lungs and to assist him in digesting the old gentleman.

But if much of the fascination to which we advert is physical, much also is mental. Mere freedom from the cares of civilization will doubtless induce a hard-worked man to think well of the rocks, for is it not a pleasure to find oneself in a region where no duns can follow, where no writs or hostile notices can be served, and where the postman cannot bring you his usual allowance of three or four disagreeable letters to a single joygiving epistle? It would be impossible, indeed, for any person, however prosaic by disposition, unless all sympathy with nature had been crushed out of his soul in the counting-house or on the Exchange, to enter the Alpine world and not feel conscious that there was magic in the mountains. He might travel from Dan to Beersheba and declare that all was barren, particularly in the commercial way; but if there is any region where he would be likely to forget the Ready Reckoner, and to think little about the closing price of the funds, it is that where man measures himself against the giant hills, and discovers that he is a mere pigmy in stature and an insect in power. When he sees peaks he cannot climb, and precipices down which he is afraid to look; when he listens to the roar of the merciless avalanche, or watches

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