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Döllinger on the Church and Churches.

153 morbid taste for the gloomy, and often for the horrible, detracts largely from the pleasure we might feel in his pictures. M. Ley's old homely Flemish subjects are always pleasing for their truth and feeling; 'Young Luther singing Hymns in the 'Streets' is a pleasant reproduction of a suggestive incident, and the 'Women with a Sick Child before a Shrine' has much pathetic feeling. Germany and Austria seem to us but inadequately represented, while Italy, including the Roman School, is strong rather in sculpture and mosaics, and most exquisite cameos and intaglios, than in painting. Most interesting and suggestive is it to see works of art from Italy to Norway, from Russia to Belgium, thus brought together under one roof, and great will be the advantage the art student will derive from marking their varieties of style, and comparing their merits.

ART. VII.-(1.) Kirche und Kirchen, Papstthum und Kirchenstaat. Historisch-politische Betrachtungen von JоH. Jos. IGN. V. DÖLLINGER. Zweiter unveränderter Abdruck. München: 1861.

(2.) The Church and The Churches; or, The Papacy and The Temporal Power. An Historical and Political Review. By Dr. DÖLLINGER. Translated by WILLIAM BERNARD MACCABE. London: 1862.

IT is narrated of some Greek or Roman, who was an orator and speech-writer by profession, that, being met one day by a client for whom he had just before prepared a defence, he inquired, 'Well, and what do you think of the speech?' The client is said to have answered that he scarcely knew just then what to think; for that at the first reading his defence appeared to him complete and triumphant; that at the second reading he observed what appeared to him several fallacious arguments and sundry marks of weakness; that at the third reading he liked it still less; and that, under these circumstances, what might be his final opinion he felt unable to foresee. We shall hope that he was to some extent re-assured by the reminder that it was unnecessary to give himself further concern, as the judges to whom the speech was to be addressed would not have the opportunity of comparing second impressions with first, as they would hear his oration only once. Now we do not mean to suggest that those admirers of Dr. Döllinger who read his book

more than once will go through a similar process of disenchantment, but only to say, that its effect upon ourselves has frequently and forcibly reminded us of the foregoing anecdote. We felt that his arguments were many of them at least powerful, though not invincible. As we first scanned it, his championship appeared more formidable than after careful scrutiny. The effect of the whole was too decisive and too brilliant to leave us with much disposition to read or to criticise the particular effects of the parts. It was so refreshing, too, to find ourselves face to face with an apologist of The Church and an antagonist of The Churches who, in condemning the latter, shewed himself really to know something about them; and who, in defending and glorifying the former, made open confession of his belief that black and white, straight and crooked, are not interchangeable and equivalent terms, and that two and two almost invariably make four, the schoolmen and the Popes notwithstanding. In one word, Dr. Döllinger has produced a most able book. It is characterized for the most part by great and various knowledge; it contains a few serious and almost amusing errors of fact; it admits most fully and candidly the existence of defects on the side it so boldly defends; and is altogether a performance of which our readers may find it very well worth while to have some examination and account.

I. The primary object and occasion of Dr. Döllinger's work is to vindicate him in respect of sundry misrepresentations of two lectures delivered by him at Munich in the spring of last year, and to give a fuller and juster explanation of the opinions he really entertains on the principal subject then discussed. That subject was the Temporal Power in its relation to the Papacy. He was constantly being asked, 'How was the position of the 'Papal See-the partly consummated, partly threatened, loss of 'its temporal sovereignty-to be explained?' His friends and hearers knew, and none better than himself knew, how frequently and how variously that sovereignty has been declared essential, not only to the prosperity, but to the very existence, of the Catholic Church. From the boldest of the Popes down to to the most abject of their followers, there have come the strongest and most unmeasured declarations on this subject. For the temporal power Popes have levied armies and fulminated anathemas. Kings have warred for it, and cardinals have published countless manifestoes. Bishops and priests, mendicant friars and world-famed saints have preached and suffered, and (they say) wrought miracles for it. And for this Temporal Power the leading spirit of the London Oratory of St. Philip Neri-an Englishman from whom everything English seems to

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The Temporal Power Indispensable.

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have been well-nigh eviscerated, and whose eloquence were surely worthier of the tripod than the tiara-has declared himself thus: What is done to the Pope, for him or against him, 'is done to Jesus himself. All that is kingly, all that is priestly, in our dearest Lord, is gathered up in the person of his Vicar, 'to receive our homage and our veneration. We should 'not allow ourselves in one dishonouring thought, in one 'cowardly suspicion, in one faint-hearted uncertainty about 'anything which concerns either his spiritual or his temporal 'sovereignty, for even his temporal kingship is part of our 'religion. We must not permit ourselves the irreverent disloyalty 'of distinguishing in him and in his office what we may consider 'human from what we may acknowledge as divine.'* Declarations such as these no less vehement and profane, not to say rabid -were familiar both to Dr. Döllinger and his auditors, and have been familiar to the whole Roman Catholic Church any time for centuries past. Impelled, therefore, alike by reason, by religion, and by facts, the lecturer resolved to look these declarations in the face, to investigate their grounds, and to invite his audience to follow his example. The result was a conclusion for which his forty years' studies in Church history had already prepared him, and a counter-declaration of which, in the author's own words, this was the substance :-'Let no one lose faith in the 'Church, if the temporal principality of the Papacy should disappear, whether it be for a season, or for ever. It is not essence, but accident; not end, but means; it began late; it 'was formerly something quite different from what it is now. It 'now justly appears to us to be indispensable; and so long as the 'existing order lasts in Europe, it must, at all cost, be main'tained; or, if it is violently interrupted, it must be restored. 'But it is possible to suppose a condition of Europe in which 'it would be superfluous, and then it would be only a clogging

'burden.'

Every part of this declaration is of consequence; its conditions and reservations not least so. But even with these, it will not be wondered at that Dr. Döllinger's audience was somewhat startled as well as deeply interested. The daily and other journals circulated condensed reports of the lectures by tens and hundreds of thousands. Many of these reports contained serious blunders, and all of them showed what, to the lecturer, appeared important omissions. Munich had eclipsed itself. It had become in a moment the centre of Germany, the observed of all Europe, the most notable city in Christendom. Catholics and nonCatholics were almost equally excited. Here was a Daniel • Devotion to the Pope. By Frederick William Faber, D.D. London: 1860.

come to judgment whom his fellow-religionists rejected, and whom their opponents were unable to claim. No position could for a time have been more thoroughly unenviable. Mistaken eulogists were neutralized by equally mistaken cavillers. The Romanist was scandalized, and the Protestant but half satisfied, though greatly pleased. Panegyric and reprobation were almost balanced; but at length the latter got the best of it, and, after a while, though with different feelings, and for different reasons, both sides came to a sort of agreement, saying in effect,

Non tali auxilio, nec defensoribus istis
Tempus eget.

Meanwhile, Dr. Döllinger quietly withdrew from the arena in which his lectures had produced so violent a strife. He made no reply, returned no railing, gave no contradiction either to honest ignorance or to wilful falsehood, but after six laborious and arduous months of preparation, he has answered by this book. How far its effect will correspond to his wishes, it is at present too early to foresee.

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But while Dr. Döllinger admits, and appears to admit without reserve, that the temporal power is not absolutely necessary to the Papacy, he still maintains it to be everything short of this. He insists that there once was a period when that power was positively essential to the Church, was one of the conditions. -an indispensable condition-of her activity and life. He anticipates convulsion and calamity as a consequence of the impending loss of it. He will not say, indeed, that heaven and earth shall pass away sooner than the States of the Church shall pass from the Pope-which has been said by some of his co-religionists-but he will maintain at all hazards that, the 'temporal power of the Pope is required [nöthig] by the Church,' and affirms that that is obvious to everybody, at least out of 'Italy.' How far the author is self-consistent herein, it is not at present our intention to inquire. We find, however, that while he yields to the reasons which oblige him to consider the alienation of the States of the Church as a not improbable event, he regards the event with profound apprehension and alarm. And in anticipation of it, while he declares at one moment that it would be profane to limit Divine Providence to an alternative, he affirms in the next that there can be no harm whatever in shutting it up to a supposed exhaustive trilemma.

'God's knowledge and power,' he writes, 'reach further than ours, and we must not presume to set bounds to the Divine Wisdom

Providence Reduced to a Trilemma.

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and Omnipotence, and cry out to it, "This way and not otherwise." Should, however, the event which now threatens to occur actually take place, and the Pope be despoiled [beraubt wird] of his landed possessions, one of three eventualities will assuredly come to pass :Either the loss of the Papal States is only temporary, and the territory will revert, after some intervening casualties, in its entirety or in part, to its rightful sovereign; or Providence will bring about, by ways unknown to us, and combinations which we cannot divine, a state of things in which the object-namely, the independence and free action of the Papal See-shall be secured without those means which have hitherto sufficed for it; or, lastly, we are approaching great catastrophes in Europe-a collapse of the whole edifice of existing social order-events of which the downfall of the Papal States is only the precursor, or, as it may be said, the first Job'smessenger.'*

Of these eventualities, the author regards the first as the most probable; the second he retains as a possibility, a counterpoise to some opposite and over-confident assertions; and the third he places midway between the most probable and the barely possible, as an eventuality which will summon the Church to a work in which she has already had practice, namely, to active co-operation in the reconstruction of social order out of the 'ruins.' Thus sombre are the author's views of a state of things which a large part of Europe regards, not, to be sure, without anxiety, but with a mightily preponderant hope and joy. As soon would he expect to see a paragon of youthful manhood emerge from the cauldron into which his daughters flung the torn limbs of Pelias, as to see evoked from the chaotic dismemberment and disorganization of Italian dukedoms and of Papal States, a complete and living Italy, crowned with the Alps, the Mediterranean at her feet, Venice restored to her, Rome in her right hand, and taking that place among the nations to which her ancient fame and her splendid though neglected powers entitle her to aspire. For Dr. Döllinger heaven itself grows dark, through what to other men seems brightness. Long centuries of brutal tyranny and weary ignorance can be followed by a better time, he tells us, only at the risk of general collapse. The degrading tutelage of ignorance and fear which, in instances that God has counted by the thousand, 'hath slain an immortality rather than a life,' can be dispensed with only under the probable penalty of another inroad of universal barbarism! And he is but a heretic or an infidel, has read history upside down, has learned

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Even in this last case, the Papacy is still to retain its predominance; and so profane a lemma as that which would assume the possibility of Providence being able, if very hard put to it, to dispense with the Papal See altogether, appears never to have entered Dr. Döllinger's head.

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