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exerted the powers of the scholar, the reasoner, our natural body is the same still when it is gloriand the wit. But his knowledge was too multifa-fied. I am sure I like it better than I did before, rious to be always exact, and his pursuits too eager and so will every man else. I know I meant just to be always cautious. His abilities gave him a what you explain; but I did not explain my own haughty confidence, which he disdained to conceal meaning so well as you. You understand me as or mollify: and his impatience of opposition dis-well as I do myself; but you express me better than posed him to treat his adversaries with such con- I could express myself. Pray, accept the sincerest temptuous superiority as made his readers com- acknowledgments. I cannot but wish these Letmonly his enemies, and excited against the advocate ters were put together in one Book, and intend the wishes of some who favoured the cause. He (with your leave) to procure a translation of part seems to have adopted the Roman Emperor's de-at least, or of all of them, into French; but I shall termination, oderint dum metuant; he used no not proceed a step without your consent and opinion, allurements of gentle language, but wished to com- &c." pel rather than persuade.

His style is copious without selection, and forcible without neatness; he took the words that presented themselves; his diction is coarse and impure; and his sentences are unmeasured.

By this fond and eager acceptance of an exculpatory comment, Pope testified that, whatever might be the seeming or real import of the principles which he had received from Bolingbroke, he had not intentionally attacked religion; and BolingHe had, in the early part of his life, pleased broke, if he meant to make him, without his own himself with the notice of inferior wits, and cor- consent, an instrument of mischief, found him now responded with the enemies of Pope. A Letter engaged, with his eyes open, on the side of truth. was produced, when he had perhaps himself for- It is known that Bolingbroke concealed from Pope gotten it, in which he tells Concanen, "Dryden I his real opinions. He once discovered them to Mr. observe borrows for want of leisure, and Pope for Hooke, who related them again to Pope, and was want of genius; Milton out of pride, and Addison told by him that he must have mistaken the meanout of modesty." And when Theobald published ing of what he heard; and Bolingbroke, when Shakspeare, in opposition to Pope, the best notes were supplied by Warburton.

But the time was now come when Warburton was to change his opinion; and Pope was to find a defender in him who had contributed so much to the exaltation of his rival.

Pope's uneasiness incited him to desire an explanation, declared that Hooke had misunderstood him. Bolingbroke hated Warburton, who had drawn his pupil from him; and a little before Pope's death they had a dispute, from which they parted with mutual aversion.

The arrogance of Warburton excited against him From this time Pope lived in the closest intimaevery artifice of offence, and therefore it may be cy with his commentator, and amply rewarded his supposed that his union with Pope was censured as kindness and zeal; for he introduced him to Mr. hypocritical inconsistency; but surely to think dif- Murray, by whose interest he became preacher at ferently, at different times, of poetical merit, may Lincoln's Inn; and to Mr. Allen, who gave him his be easily allowed. Such opinions are often ad-niece and his estate, and by consequence a bishomitted, and dismissed, without nice examination. pric. When he died, he left him the property of Who is there that has not found reason for chang- his works; a legacy which may be reasonably esti ing his mind about questions of great importance? mated at four thousand pounds. Warburton, whatever was his motive, under- Pope's fondness for the 'Essay on Man' appeared took, without solicitation, to rescue Pope from the by his desire of its propagation. Dobson, who had talents of Crousaz, by freeing him from the impu- gained reputation by his version of Prior's 'Solotation of favouring fatality, or rejecting revelation; mon,' was employed by him to translate it into and from month to month continued a vindication Latin verse, and was for that purpose some time of the Essay on Man,' in the literary journal of at Twickenham; but he left his work, whatever that time called 'The Republic of Letters.' was the reason, unfinished; and, by Benson's invi

Pope, who probably began to doubt the tendency tation, undertook the longer task of 'Paradise of his own work, was glad that the positions, of Lost.' Pope then desired his friend to find a which he perceived himself not to know the full scholar who should turn his Essay into Latin prose; meaning, could by any mode of interpretation be but no such performance has ever appeared. made to mean well. How much he was pleased with his gratuitous defender the following Letter evidently shows:


April 11, 1732.

Pope lived at this time among the Great, with that reception and respect to which his works entitled him, and which he had not impaired by any private misconduct or factious partiality. Though Bolingbroke was his friend, Walpole was not his "I have just received from Mr. R. two more of enemy; but treated him with so much considerayour Letters. It is in the greatest hurry imagi- tion, as at his request, to solicit and obtain from the nable that I write this; but I cannot help thanking French minister an abbey for Mr. Southcot, whom you in particular for your third Letter, which is so he considered himself as obliged to reward, by this extremely clear, short, and full, that I think Mr. exertion of his interest, for the benefit which he Crousaz ought never to have another answer, and had received from his attendance in a long illness. deserved not so good a one. I can only say, you It was said, that, when the Court was at Richdo him too much honour, and me too much right, so mond, Queen Caroline had declared her intention odd as the expression seems; for you have made to visit him. This may have been only a careless my system as clear as I ought to have done, and effusion, thought on no more; the report of such nocould not. It is indeed the same system as mine, tice, however, was soon in many mouths; and, if I out illustrated with a ray of your own, as they say do not forget or misapprehend Savage's account,

Pope, pretending to decline what was not yet of-fexcellence, commonly spend life in one pursuit: for fered, left his house for a time, not I suppose for excellence is not often gained upon easier terms. any other reason than lest he should be thought to But to the particular species of excellence men are stay at home in expectation of an honour which directed, not by an ascendant planet or predomi would not be conferred. He was therefore angry nating humour, but by the first book which they at Swift, who represents him as "refusing the read, some early conversation which they heard, visits of a Queen," because he knew that what had or some accident which excited ardour and emulanever been offered had never been refused. tion.

Beside the general system of morality, supposed It must at least be allowed that this Ruling to be contained in the Essay on Man,' it was his Passion, antecedent to reason and observation, intention to write distinct poems upon the different must have an object independent on human conduties or conditions of life; one of which is the trivance; for there can be no natural desire of arti Epistle to Lord Bathurst (1733) on the 'Use of Riches,' a piece on which he declared great labour to have been bestowed.*

ficial good. No man therefore can be born, in the strict acceptation, a lover of money; for he may be born where money does not exist: nor can he be Into this piece some hints are historically thrown, born, in a moral sense, a lover of his country; for and some known characters are introduced, with society, politically regulated, is a state contradisothers of which it is difficult to say how far they tinguished from a state of nature; and any attention are real or fictious; but the praise of Kyrl, the Man to that coalition of interests which makes the hapof Ross, deserves particular examination, who, af-piness of a country, is possible only to those whom ter a long and pompous enumeration of his public inquiry and reflection have enabled to compreworks and private charities, is said to have diffused hend it.

all those blessings from five hundred a year. Won- This doctrine is in itself pernicious as well as ders are willingly told, and willingly heard. The false; its tendency is to produce the belief of a kind truth is, that Kyrl was a man of known integrity of moral predestination, or overruling principle and active benevolence, by whose solicitation the which cannot be resisted; he that admits it is prewealthy were persuaded to pay contributions to pared to comply with every desire that caprice or his charitable schemes; this influence he obtained opportunity shall excite, and to flatter himself that by an example of liberality exerted to the utmost he submits only to the lawful dominion of Nature, extent of his power, and was thus enabled to give in obeying the resistless authority of his Ruling more than he had. This account Mr. Victor re- Passion. ceived from the minister of the place: and I have

Pope has formed his theory with so little skill, preserved it, that the praise of a good man, being that in the examples by which he illustrates and made more credible, may be more solid. Narra- confirms it, he has confounded passions, appetites, tions of romantic and impracticable virtue will be read with wonder, but that which is unattainable is recommended in vain; that good may be endeavoured, it must be shown to be possible.

and habits.

To the Characters of Men,' he added soon after, in an Epistle supposed to have been addressed to Martha Blount, but which the last edition has This is the only piece in which the author has taken from her, the 'Characters of Women.' This given a hint of his religion, by ridiculing the cere-poem, which was laboured with great diligence, mony of burning the pope, and by mentioning with and, in the author's opinion, with great success, some indignation the inscription on the Monument.t was neglected at its first publication, as the comWhen this poem was first published, the dia- mentator supposes, because the public was informlogue having no letters of direction, was perplexed ed, by an advertisement, that it contained no chaand obscure. Pope seems to have written with no racter drawn from the Life; an assertion which very distinct idea; for he calls that an Epistle to Pope probably did not expect nor wish to have Bathurst,' in which Bathurst is introduced as been believed, and which he soon gave his readers speaking. sufficient reason to distrust, by telling them in a

He afterwards (1734) inscribed to Lord Cobham note that the work was imperfect, because part of his 'Characters of Men,' written with close atten- his subject was Vice too high to be yet exposed. tion to the operations of the mind and modifications The time however soon came, in which it was of life. In this poem he has endeavoured to esta-safe to display the Dutchess of Marlborough under blish and exemplify his favourite theory of the the name of Atossa; and her character was inserted Ruling Passion, by which he means an original with no great honour to the writer's gratitude. direction of desire to some particular object; an in- He published from time to time (between 1730 nate affection, which gives all action a determinate and 1740) 'Imitations of different poems of Horace,' and invariable tendency, and operates upon the generally with his name, and once, as was suspectwhole system of life, either openly or more secret-ed, without it. What he was upon moral princi ly, by the intervention of some accidental or sub-ples ashamed to own, he ought to have suppressed. ordinate propension. Of these pieces it is useless to settle the dates, as

Of any passion, thus innate and irresistible, the they seldom had much relation to the times, and existence may reasonably be doubted. Human perhaps had been long in his hands. characters are by no means constant; men change This mode of imitation, in which the ancients by change of place, of fortune, of acquaintance; he are familiarized, by adapting their sentiments to who is at one time a lover of pleasure, is at another modern topics, by making Horace say of Shaksa lover of money. Those indeed who attain any peare what he originally said of Ennius, and accommodating his satires on Pantolabus and Nomentanus to the flatterers and prodigals of our own time, was first practised in the reign of Charles the


Erected to commemorate the great Fire of London, on Fish street Hi.

Second by Oldham and Rochester, at least I re- His last Satires, of the general kind, were two member no instances more ancient. It is a kind Dialogues, named, from the year in which they of middle composition, between translation and were published, 'Seventeen Hundred and Thirtyoriginal design, which pleases when the thoughts eight.' In these poems many are praised, and are unexpectedly applicable, and the parallels many reproached. Pope was then entangled in the lucky. It seems to have been Pope's favourite opposition; a follower of the Prince of Wales, who amusement; for he has carried it further than any dined at his house, and the friend of many who obformer poet. structed and censured the conduct of the ministers.

He published likewise a revival, in smoother His political partiality was too plainly shown: he numbers, of Dr. Donne's Satires, which was re- forgot the prudence with which he passed, in his commended to him by the Duke of Shrewsbury and earlier years, uninjured and unoffending, through the Earl of Oxford. They made no great impres- much more violent conflicts of faction. sion on the public. Pope seems to have known In the first Dialogue, having an opportunity of their imbecility, and therefore suppressed them praising Allen of Bath, he asked his leave to menwhile he was yet contending to rise in reputation, tion him as a man not illustrious by any merit of his but ventured them when he thought their defi- ancestors, and called him in his verse "low-born ciencies more likely to be imputed to Donne than Allen." Men are seldom satisfied with praise into himself. troduced or followed by any mention of defect. The Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot, which seems to Allen seems not to have taken any pleasure in his be derived in its first design from Boileau's Ad-epithet, which was afterwards softened into "humdress à son Esprit, was published in January 1735, ble Allen.” about a month before the death of him to whom it is inscribed. It is to be regretted, that either honour or pleasure should have been missed by Arbuthnot; a man estimable for his learning, amiable for his life, and venerable for his piety. Arbuthnot was a man of great comprehension, cency, and against whom he hoped the resentment skilful in his profession, versed in the sciences, acquainted with ancient literature, and able to animate his mass of knowledge by a bright and active imagination; a scholar with great brilliance of wit; a wit, who, in the crowd of life, retained and discovered a noble ardour of religious zeal.

In the second Dialogue he took some liberty with one of the Foxes, among others; which Fox, in a reply to Lyttleton, took an opportunity of repaying, by reproaching him with the friendship of a lam pooner, who scattered his ink without fear or de

of the legislature would quickly be discharged. About this time Paul Whitehead, a small poet, was summoned before the Lords for a poem called Manners,' together with Dodsley his publisher. Whitehead, who hung loose upon society, skulked and escaped; but Dodsley's shop and family made In this poem Pope seems to reckon with the his appearance necessary. He was, however, soon public. He vindicates himself from censures; and dismissed; and the whole process was probably inwith dignity, rather than arrogance, enforces his tended rather to intimidate Pope, than to punish own claims to kindness and respect. Whitehead. Into this poem are interwoven several para- Pope never afterwards attempted to join the graphs which had been before printed as a frag-patriot with the poet, nor drew his pen upon statesment, and among them the satirical lines upon Ad-men. That he desisted from his attempts of refordison, of which the last couplet has been twice mation, is imputed by his commentator, to his decorrected. It was at first,

Who would not smile if such a man there be?
Who would not laugh if Addison were he?


Who would not grieve if such a man there be?
Who would not laugh if Addison were he?

At last it is,

Who but must laugh if such a man there be?
Who would not weep if Atticus were he?

spair of prevailing over the corruption of the time. He was not likely to have been ever of opinion, that the dread of his satire would countervail the love of power or of money; he pleased himself with being important and formidable; and gratified sometimes his pride, and sometimes his resentment; till at last he began to think he should be more safe, if he were less busy.

The 'Memoirs of Scriblerus,' published about this time, extend only to the first book of a work projected in concert by Pope, Swift, and Arbuthnot, who used to meet in the time of Queen Anne, and He was at this time at open war with Lord Her-denominated themselves the Scriblerus Club.' vey, who had distinguished himself as a steady ad- Their purpose was to censure the abuses of learning herent to the ministry; and, being offended with a by a fictitious Life of an infatuated Scholar. They contemptuous answer to one of his pamphlets,* had were dispersed; the design was never completed; summoned Pulteney to a duel. Whether he or and Warburton laments its miscarriage, as an event Pope made the first attack, perhaps, cannot now very disastrous to polite letters.

be easily known: he had written an invective If the whole may be estimated by this specimen, against Pope, whom he calls, "Hard as thy heart, which seems to be the production of Arbuthnot, and as thy birth obscure;" and hints that his father with a few touches perhaps by Pope, the want of was a hatter. To this Pope wrote a reply in verse more will not be much lamented; for the follies and prose; the verses are in this poem; and the which the writer ridicules are so little practised, prose, though it was never sent, is printed among that they are not known: nor can the satire be unhis Letters, but to a cool reader of the present derstood but by the learned; he raises phantoms ime exhibits nothing but tedious malignity. of absurdity, and then drives them away. He cures diseases that were never felt

*Sedition and Defamation displayed.' 8vo. 1733.

For this reason this joint production of three great

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writers has never obtained any notice from man-one of the imitations of Horace he has liberally kind; it has been little read, or when read has been enough praised the Careless Husband.' In the forgotten, as no man could be wiser, better, or Dunciad,' among other worthless scribblers, he merrier, by remembering it. had mentioned Cibber; who, in his Apology,' complains of the great Poet's unkindness as more injurious, "because," says he, "I never have offended him."

The design cannot boast of much originality; for, besides its general resemblance to Don Quixote, there will be found in it particular imitations of the History of Mr. Ouffle.

It might have been expected that Pope should Swift carried so much of it into Ireland as sup- have been, in some degree, mollified by this subplied him with hints for his Travels; and with those missive gentleness, but no such consequence apthe world might have been contented, though the peared. Though he condescended to commend rest had been suppressed.

Cibber once, he mentioned him afterwards con

Pope had sought for images and sentiments in a temptuously in one of his satires, and again in his region not known to have been explored by many Epistle to Arbuthnot; and in the fourth book of the other of the English writers; he had consulted the Dunciad' attacked him with acrimony, to which modern writers of Latin poetry, a class of authors the provocation is not easily discoverable. Perwhom Boileau endeavoured to bring into contempt, haps he imagined that, in ridiculing the Laureate, and who are too generally neglected. Pope, how-he satirized those by whom the laurel had been ever, was not ashamed of their acquaintance, nor given, and gratified that ambitious petulance with ungrateful for the advantages which he might have which he affected to insult the great. derived from it. A small selection from the Ita- The severity of this satire left Cibber no longer lians, who wrote in Latin, had been published at any patience. He had confidence enough in his London, about the latter end of the last century, by own powers to believe that he could disturb the a man who concealed his name, but whom his Pre-quiet of his adversary, and doubtless did not want face shows to have been qualified for his under-instigators, who, without any care about the victaking. This collection Pope amplified by more tory, desired to amuse themselves by looking on than half, and (1740) published it in two volumes, the contest. He therefore gave the town a pambut injuriously omitted his predecessor's Preface. phlet, in which he declared his resolution from that To these books, which had nothing but the mere time never to bear another blow without returning text, no regard was paid; the authors were still it, and to tire out his adversary by perseverance, neglected, and the editor was neither praised nor if he cannot conquer him by strength. censured.

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"March 25, 1736.

The incessant and unappeasable malignity of

He did not sink into idleness; he had planned a Pope he imputes to a very distant cause. After work which he considered as subsequent to his the Three hours after Marriage' had been driven Essay on Man,' of which he has given this ac-off the stage, by the offence which the mummy and count to Dr. Swift: crocodile gave the audience, while the exploded scene was yet fresh in memory, it happened that "If ever I write any more Epistles in verse, one Cibber played Bayes in the 'Rehearsal;' and, as it of them shall be addressed to you. I have long had been usual to enliven the part by the mention concerted it, and begun it; but I would make what of any recent theatrical transactions, he said, that bears your name as finished as my last work ought he once thought to have introduced his lovers disto be; that is to say, more finished than any of the guised in a mummy and a crocodile. "This," rest. The subject is large, and will divide into says he, "was received with loud claps, which infour Epistles, which naturally follow the Essay dicated contempt of the play." Pope, who was on Man;' viz. 1. Of the Extent and Limits of behind the scenes, meeting him as he left the human Reason and Science. 2. A View of the use-stage, attacked him, as he says, with all the viruful and therefore attainable, and of the unuseful and lence of a " Wit out of his senses;" to which he therefore unattainable Arts. 3. Of the Nature, replied, "that he would take no other notice of Ends, Application, and Use, of different Capacities. what was said by so particular a man, than to de4. Of the Use of Learning, of the Science of the clare, that as often as he played that part, he would World, and of Wit. It will conclude with a satire repeat the same provocation." against the Misapplication of all these, exemplified| by Pictures, Characters, and Examples."

He shows his opinion to be, that Pope was one of the authors of the play which he so zealously defended; and adds an idle story of Pope's behaviour at a tavern.

This work in its full extent, being now afflicted with an asthma, and finding the powers of life gradually declining, he had no longer courage to The pamphlet was written with little power of undertake; but from the materials which he had thought or language, and, if suffered to remain with provided, he added, at Warburton's request, ano-out notice, would have been very soon forgotten. ther book to the Dunciad,' of which the design is to ridicule such studies as are either hopeless or useless, as either pursue what is unattainable, or what, if it be attained, is of no use.

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Pope had now been enough acquainted with human life to know, if his passion had not been too powerful for his understanding, that from a contention like his with Cibber, the world seeks nothing but When this book was printed (1742) the laurel diversion, which is given at the expense of the had been for some time upon the head of Cibber; a higher character. When Cibber lampooned Pope, man whom it cannot be supposed that Pope could curiosity was excited; what Pope would say of regard with much kindness or esteem, though in Cibber nobody inquired, but in hope that Pope's asperity might betray his pain and lessen his dig

* Since discovered to be Atterbury, afterwards Bishop of nity.


He should therefore have suffered the pamphlet

to flutter and die, without confessing that it stung attention wearied, and to whom the mind will not him. The dishonour of being shown as Cibber's easily be recalled, when it is invited in blank verse, antagonist could never be compensated by the vic-which Pope had adopted with great imprudence, tory. Cibber had nothing to lose; when Pope had and, think, without due consideration of the naexbausted all his malignity upon him, he would ture of our language. The sketch is, at least in rise in the esteem both of his friends and his ene- part, preserved by Ruffhead; by which it appears, mies. Silence only could have made him despica- that Pope was thoughtless enough to model the ble; the blow which did not appear to be felt would names of his heroes with terminations not consistent have been struck in vain. with the time or country in which he places them But Pope's irascibility prevailed, and he re- He lingered through the next year; but perceived solved to tell the whole English world that he was himself, as he expresses it, "going down the hill." at war with Cibber; and, to show that he thought He had for at least five years been afflicted with him no common adversary, he prepared no common an asthma and other disorders, which his physivengeance; he published a new edition of the cians were unable to relieve. Towards the end of 'Dunciad,' in which he degraded Theobald from his life he consulted Dr. Thomson, a man who had, his painful pre-eminence, and enthroned Cibber in by large promises, and free censures of the common nis stead. Unhappily the two heroes were of op- practice of physic, forced himself up into sudden posite characters, and Pope was unwilling to lose reputation. Thomson declared his distemper to be what he had already written; he has therefore de-a dropsy, and evacuated part of the water by tincpraved his poem by giving to Cibber the old books, ture of jalap; but confessed that his belly did not the old pedantry, and the sluggish pertinacity of subside. Thomson had many enemies, and Pope Theobald. was persuaded to dismiss him.

Pope was ignorant enough of his own interest, to While he was yet capable of amusement and conmake another change, and introduced Osborne con-versation, as he was one day sitting in the air with tending for the prize among the booksellers. Os- Lord Bolingbroke and Lord Marchmont, he saw borne was a man entirely destitute of shame, with- his favourite Martha Blount at the bottom of the out sense of any disgrace but that of poverty. He terrace, and asked Lord Bolingbroke to go and hand told me, when he was doing that which raised her up. Bolingbroke, not liking his errand, crossPope's resentment, that he should be put into the ed his legs and sat still; but Lord Marchmont, who 'Dunciad;' but he had the fate of Cassandra. I gave was younger and less captious, waited on the lady, no credit to his prediction, till in time I saw it ac- who, when he came to her, asked-“ What, is he complished. The shafts of satire were directed not dead yet?" She is said to have neglected him, equally in vain against Cibber and Osborn; being with shameful unkindness, in the latter time of his repelled by the impenetrable impudence of one, decay; yet, of the little which he had to leave, she and deadened by the impassive dulness of the other. had a very great part. Their acquaintance began Pope confessed his own pain by his anger; but he early; the life of each was pictured on the other's gave no pain to those who had provoked him. He mind; their conversation therefore was endearing, was able to hurt none but himself; but transferring for when they met, there was an immediate coalithe same ridicule from one to another, he reduced tion of congenial notions. Perhaps he considered himself to the insignificance of his own magpic, her unwillingness to approach the chamber of sickwho from his cage calls cuckold at a venture. ness as female weakness, or human frailty; perhaps Cibber, according to his engagement, repaid the he was conscious to himself of peevishness and im'Dunciad' with another pamphlet, which Pope said, patience, or, though he was offended by her in"would be as good as a dose of hartshorn to him;" attention, might yet consider her merit as overbut his tongue and his heart were at variance. Ibalancing her fault; and, if he had suffered his heart have heard Mr. Richardson relate, that he attend-to be alienated from her, he could have found noed his father the painter on a visit, when one of thing that might have filled her place; he could Cibber's pamphlets came into the hands of Pope, have only shrunk within himself; it was too late to who said, "These things are my diversion." They transfer his confidence or fondness. sat by him while he perused it, and saw his features writhing with anguish; and young Richardson said to his father when they returned, "that he hoped to be preserved from such diversion as had been that day the lot of Pope."

In May, 1744, his death was approaching:* on the sixth, he was all day delirious, which he mentioned four days afterwards as a sufficient humiliation of the vanity of man; he afterwards complained of seeing things as through a curtain, and in false From this time finding his diseases more oppres-colours; and one day, in the presence of Dodsley, sive, and his vital powers gradually declining, he asked what arm it was that came out from the no longer strained his faculties with any original wall. He said that his greatest inconvenience was composition, nor proposed any other employment inability to think. for his remaining life, than the revisal and correc

Bolingbroke sometimes wept over him in this tion of his former works; in which he received ad-state of helpless decay; and being told by Spence, vice and assistance from Warburton, whom he that Pope, at the intermission of his deliriousness, appears to have trusted and honoured in the highest was always saying something kind either of his predegree. sent or absent friends, and that his humanity seemHe laid aside his Epic Poem, perhaps without ed to have survived his understanding, answered, much loss to mankind; for his hero was Brutus the "It has so." And added, "I never in my life knew Trojan, who, according to the ridiculous fiction, a man that had so tender a heart for his particular established a colony in Britain. The subject there- friends, or more general friendship for mankind." fore, was of the fabulous age; the actors were a race upon whom imagination had been exhausted, and

* Spence.

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