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immediately divulge it; but if they told it to the apostle and to those who are in authority among them, such of them would understand the truth of the matter, as inform themselves thereof from the apostle and his chiefs. And if the favour of GOD and his mercy had not been upon you, ye had followed the devil, except a few of you. (83) Fight therefore for the religion of GOD, and oblige not any to what is difficult, except thyself; however, excite the faithful to war, perhaps GOD will restrain the courage of the unbelievers; for GOD is stronger than they, and more able to punish. (84) He who intercedeth between men with a good intercession shall have a portion thereof; and he who intercedeth with an evil intercession shall have a portion thereof; for GOD overlooketh all things. (85) When ye are saluted with a salutation, salute the person with a better salutation, or at least return the same; for GOD taketh an account of all things.

to receive him, but he, supposing them to have come out to kill him, fled into Madina and spread the report of the disaffection of the tribe.-Tafsir-i-Raufi.

Ye had followed the devil. "That is, if God had not sent his Apostle with the Qurán to instruct you in your duty, ye had continued in idolatry and been doomed to destruction, except only those who, by God's favour and their superior understanding, should have true notions of the divinity; such, for example, as Zaid Ibn Amru Ibn Nufail and Waraqa Ibn Naufal, who left idols and acknowledged but one God before the mission of Muhammad.”—Sale, Baidháwi.

(83) Oblige not, &c. "It is said this passage was revealed when the Muhammadans refused to follow their Prophet to the lesser expedition of Badr, so that he was obliged to set out with no more than seventy (chap. iii. ver. 174). Some copies vary in this place, and instead of lá tukallafu, in the second person singular, read lá nukallafu, in the first person plural, 'We do not oblige,' &c. The meaning being, that the Prophet only was under an indispensable necessity of obeying God's commands, however difficult, but others might choose, though at their peril."-Sale.

Perhaps God will restrain. This is said to have been fulfilled in the return of Abu Sufián, who had started on the second expedition to Badr. The character of this prophecy, if such were intended, is made sufficiently clear by reference to note on chap. iii. 175.

(84) God overlooketh all things, i.e., God sees all things, even the secret motives which inspire your efforts at reconciliation, whether they be good or bad, and will therefore certainly reward accordingly. (85) A better salutation. "By adding something further.

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(86) GOD! there is no GOD but he; he will surely gather you together on the day of resurrection; there is no doubt of it: and who is more true than God in what he saith?

|| (87) Why are ye divided concerning the ungodly into two parties; since GOD hath overturned them for what they have committed? Will ye direct him whom GOD hath led astray; since for him whom GOD shall lead astray, thou shalt find no true path? (88) They desire that ye should become infidels, as they are infidels, and that ye should be equally wicked with themselves. Therefore take not friends from among them, until they fly their country for the religion of GOD; and if they turn back from the faith, take them, and kill them wherever

when one salutes another by this form, 'Peace be unto thee,' he ought not only to return the salutation, but to add, and the mercy of God and his blessing.'"-Sale.

The salutation in Arabic is As salámo álaikum, and the reply should be wa alaikomussalám o rahmat ulláh, or if the address be As salám álaikum o rahmat ulláh, the reply should add wa barakátoh. This salutation is used only in addressing a Muslim. If addressed to a Muslim, he may only reply as above directed when he recognises in the speaker a Muslim. The use of it is, therefore, equivalent to a profession of Islám. It is the watchword of the Muslim.

(87) Two parties. "This passage was revealed, according to some, when certain of Muhammad's followers, pretending not to like Madína, desired leave to go elsewhere, and having obtained it, went farther and farther, till they joined the idolaters; or, as others say, on occasion of some deserters at the battle of Ohod, concerning whom the Muslims were divided in opinion whether they should be slain as infidels or not."-Sale.

Whom God hath led astray, i.e., by eternally decreeing his course of evil, or by a righteous reprobation.

(88) They desire, &c. "The people here meant, say some, were the tribe of Khuzáah, or, according to others, the Aslamians, whose chief, named Hilal Ibn Uwaimar, agreed with Muhammad, when he set out against Makkah, to stand neuter; or, as others rather think, Banu Baqr Ibn Zaid."-Sale, Baidháwi, Jaláluddín.

No covenant of friendship was to be entered into with these, except in the case of those who became refugees, and of whose sincerity there could be no doubt. Should they afterwards apostatise, they were to be slain. This law was inexorably executed in all Muslim countries for over twelve hundred years. Death is still the penalty that may be legally inflicted on every convert from Islám to Christianity in every country not yet under Christian domination.

ye find them; and take no friend from among them, nor any helper, (89) except those who go unto a people who are in alliance with you, or those who come unto you, their hearts forbidding them either to fight against you, or to fight against their own people. And if GOD pleased he would have permitted them to have prevailed against you, and they would have fought against you. But if they depart from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, GOD doth not allow you to take or kill them. (90) Ye shall find others who are desirous to enter into confidence with you, and at the same time to preserve a confidence with their own people; so often as they return to sedition, they shall be subverted therein; and if they depart not from you, and offer you peace, and restrain their hands from warring against you, take them and kill them wheresoever ye find them; over these have we granted you a manifest power.

I (91) It is not lawful for a believer to kill a believer, R 18. unless it happen by mistake; and whoso killeth a believer by mistake, the penalty shall be the freeing of a believer

(89) Except those, &c., i.e., "the Bani Mudlaj, who had agreed to remain neutral between Muhammad and the Quraish."-Tafsir-iRauf. The importance of this treaty is indicated in the latter part of this verse.

(90) Ye shall find others. "The persons hinted at here were the tribes of Asad and Ghatfán, or, as some say, Banu Abdaldár, who came to Madína and pretended to embrace Muhammadanism, that they might be trusted by the Muslims, but when they returned, fell back to their old idolatry."-Sale, Baidhawi.

The history of Muslim wars with the Bani Quraidha and the Jews of Khaibar illustrate how faithfully the fierce injunction of this verse was carried out.

(91) Unless by mistake. "That is, by accident and without design. This passage was revealed to decide the case of Ayásh Ibn Abi Rábia, the brother by the mother's side of Abu Jahl, who, meeting Haráth Ibn Zaid on the road, and not knowing that he had embraced Muhammadanism, slew him."-Sale, Baidhawi.

A believer from slavery, i.e., a slave who has professed Islám. The hope of freedom must have been a strong inducement to unbelieving slaves to profess the religion of their masters.

A fine, "which is to be distributed according to the law of inheritance given in the beginning of this chapter.”—Sale, Baidháwi. VOL. II.

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from slavery, and a fine to be paid to the family of the deceased, unless they remit it as alms: and if the slain person be of a people at enmity with you, and be a true believer, the penalty shall be the freeing of a believer; but if he be of a people in confederacy with you, a fine to be paid to his family, and the freeing of a believer. And he who findeth not wherewith to do this shall fast two months consecutively as a penance enjoined from GOD; and GOD is knowing and wise. (92) But whoso killeth a believer designedly, his reward shall be hell; he shall remain therein forever; and GOD shall be angry with him, and shall curse him, and shall prepare for him a great punishment. (93) O true believers, when ye are on a march in defence of the true religion, justly discern such as ye shall happen to meet, and say not unto him who saluteth you, thou art not a true believer; seeking the accidental goods of the present life; for with GOD is much spoil. Such have ye formerly been; but GOD hath been gracious unto

When, however, the deceased believer's people are unbelievers, no fine is to be paid. The legal fine as the price of blood is one hundred camels, as follows:-Twenty males one year old, twenty females of one year, twenty of two years, twenty of three years, and twenty of four years old. If the slain person be a woman, the fine is half this sum. In the case of a slave, the price must be paid to the master. If the fine be paid in coin, then the blood price is one thousand dinars gold, or ten thousand dirhams in silver. Half this sum to be paid for a woman.

But if he be of a people in confederacy, &c. The same rule as to fine was applied to the case of a person slain, who, though not a Muslim, yet belonged to a tribe or nation with whom a treaty of peace had been formed.

(92) This verse was intended to abolish the blood feuds so prevalent among the Arabs, and no doubt it ministered to the welding together of the various factions under the banner of Islám. How many millions of Muslims have been consigned to hell by this law since the death of Muhammad the annals of Islám abundantly declare. The punishment is, say the commentators, purgatorial, and the Muslim will eventually be restored to paradise, for, according to the Qurán, no true Muslim can be for ever lost. This view of the matter is, however, contradicted by this very passage, which says the murderer "shall remain therein for ever," the same language used in speaking of the fate of infidels.

(93) Say not... thou art not a true believer. The desire for

you; therefore make a just discernment, for GOD is well acquainted with that which ye do.

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|| (94) Those believers who sit still at home, not having R 11 any hurt, and those who employ their fortunes and their persons for the religion of GOD, shall not be held equal. GOD hath prepared those who employ their fortunes and their persons in that cause to a degree of honour above those who sit at home; GOD hath indeed promised every one paradise, but GOD hath preferred those who fight for the faith before those who sit still, by adding unto them a great reward, (95) by degrees of honour conferred on them from him, and by granting them forgiveness and mercy; for GOD is indulgent and merciful. (96) Moreover unto those. whom the angels put to death, having injured their own

plunder, which Muhammad had stirred up, had become so insatiable, that even Muslims were slain on the pretence that they were infidels, in order that they might be lawfully plundered. See Muir's Life of Mahomet, vol. iii. p. 307.

With God is much spoil. The motive here was certainly suited to Arab minds: Don't rob and murder Muslims for the sake of spoil, for God will give you the opportunity of spoiling many infidels. Muhammad did not scruple to pander to the worst passions of human nature in order to advance his political ends. Let it be remembered, however, this language does not purport to be Muhammad's, but that of the only true God! See our note in Prelim. Disc., p. 118.

(94) Not having any hurt, i.e., "not being disabled from going to war by sickness or other just impediment. It is said that when this passage was first revealed there was no such exception therein, which occasioned Ibn Umm Maqtúm, on his hearing it repeated, to object, And what though I be blind?' Whereupon Muhammad, falling into a kind of trance, which was succeeded by strong agitations, pretended he had received the divine direction to add these words to the text."-Sale, Baidhawi.

The Makkan preacher declared that force was not to be used in religion, but the Madína politician promises the highest honours to those who spend life and property in warring for the faith. The prophet has now become a soldier and a general of armies. Like Jeroboam, Muhammad, having built his altars in Bethel and Dan, no longer hesitates to make any use of the holy name and religion of Jehovah which would seem to advance his political aspirations.

(96) Whom the angels put to death. "These were certain inhabitants of Makkah, who held with the hare and ran with the hounds, for though they embraced Muhammadanism, yet they would not

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