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long and prosperous lives only that their iniquity may be increased; and they shall suffer an ignominious punishment. (180) GOD is not disposed to leave the faithful in the condition which ye are now in, until he sever the wicked from the good; nor is GOD disposed to make you acquainted with what is a hidden secret, but GOD chooseth such of his apostles as he pleaseth, to reveal his mind unto : believe therefore in GOD and his apostles; and if ye believe and fear God, ye shall receive a great reward. (181) And let not those who are covetous of what GOD of his bounty hath granted them imagine that their avarice is better for them: nay, rather it is worse for them. That which they have covetously reserved shall be bound as a collar about their neck on the day of the resurrection: unto GOD belongeth the inheritance of heaven and earth: and GOD is well acquainted with what ye do.

(180) God is not disposed, dc., i.e., he will not suffer the good and sincere among you to continue indiscriminately mixed with the wicked and hypocritical.

A hidden secret. The author of the notes on the Roman Urdú Quran thinks that Muhammad here disclaims all knowledge of the "hidden" things revealed to the chosen apostles of God. But the Tafsir-i-Raufi says the very reverse is the meaning of this passage. Muhammad here numbers himself among the chosen apostles, to whom God is pleased to make known the "hidden secrets" of his purpose. God does not, however, reveal secret things to hypocrites.

Believe. . . in God and his apostles. The use of the plural here shows that the revelations of God's hidden purposes made to apostles other than Muhammad were to be accepted by the Muslims. There were then genuine und credible scriptures, containing these revelations, in the hands of the contemporaries of Muhammad.

(181) Those who are covetous. The following tradition is given on the authority of Abu Hurairah :-"To whosoever God gives wealth, and he does not perform the charity due from it, his wealth will be made into the shape of a serpent on the day of resurrection, which shall not have any hair upon its head; and this is a sign of its poison and long life, and it has two black spots upon its eyes, and it will be twisted round his neck like a chain on the day of resurrection; then the serpent will seize the man's jawbone, and will say, 'I am thy wealth, the charity for which thou didst not give; and I am thy treasure, from which thou didst not separate any alms.""— Mishqút-al-Masábih, book vi. chap. i. pt. 1.

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|| (182) GOD hath already heard the saying of those who said, Verily GOD is poor, and we are rich: we will surely write down what they have said, and the slaughter which they have made of the prophets without a cause; and we will say unto them, Taste ye the pain of burning. (183) This shall they suffer for the evil which their hands have sent before them, and because GOD is not unjust towards mankind; (184) who also say, Surely GOD hath commanded us, that we should not give credit to any apostle, until one should come unto us with a sacrifice, which should be consumed by fire. Say, Apostles have already come unto you

(182) Verily God is poor. "It is related that Muhammad, writing
to the Jews of the tribe of Qainuqáa to invite them to Islám, and
exhorting them, among other things, in the words of the Qurán,
(chap. ii. 245), to lend unto God on good usury, Phineas Ibn Azúra,
on hearing that expression, said, 'Surely God is poor, since they ask
to borrow for him.' Whereupon Abu Baqr, who was the bearer of that
letter, struck him on the face, and told him that if it had not been
for the truce between them, he would have struck off his head; and
on Phineas's complaining to Muhammad of Abu Baqr's ill usage,
this passage was revealed."-Sale, Baidhawi.

The slaughter... of the prophets. See note on ver. 112.
(184) A sacrifice consumed by fire. "The Jews, say the com-
mentators, insisted that it was a peculiar proof of the mission of all
the prophets sent to them that they could, by their prayers, bring
down fire from heaven to consume the sacrifice, and therefore they
expected Muhammad should do the like. And some Muhammadan
doctors agree that God appointed this miracle as the test of all their
prophets, except only Jesus and Muhammad (Jalaluddin): though
others say any other miracle was a proof full as sufficient as the
bringing down fire from heaven (Baidháwi).

"The Arabian Jews seem to have drawn a general consequence
from some particular instances of this miracle in the Old Testament
(Lev. ix. 24, &c.), and the Jews at this day say that first the fire
which fell from heaven on the altar of the tabernacle (Lev. ix. 24),
after the consecration of Aaron and his sons, and afterwards that
which descended on the altar of Solomon's Temple at the dedication
of that structure (2 Chron. vii. 1), was fed and constantly maintained
there by the priests, both day and night, without being suffered once
to go out, till it was extinguished, as some think, in the reign of
Manasses (Talmud Zebachim, chap. vi.), but, according to the more
received opinion, when the Temple was destroyed by the Chaldeans.
Several Christians have given credit to this assertion of the Jews,
with what reason I shall not here inquire: and the Jews, in conse-
quence of this notion, might probably expect that a prophet who
came to restore God's true religion should rekindle for them this

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before me, with plain proofs, and with the miracle which ye mention: why therefore have ye slain them, if ye speak truth? (185) If they accuse thee of imposture, the apostles before thee have also been accounted impostors, who brought evident demonstrations, and the scriptures, and the book which enlighteneth the understanding. (186) Every soul shall taste of death, and ye shall have your reward on the

heavenly fire, which they have not been favoured with since the Babylonish captivity."-Sale.

There are a number of passages showing how Muhammad was challenged to work miracles in attestation of his prophetic claim, e.g., chap. ii. 118, 119, vi. 34-36 and 109-111, X. 21, xvii. 92-95, XX. 134, &c. In every one of these passages the reply of Muhammad clearly indicates that he did not claim the power to work miracles. This matter is very clearly set forth in Prideaux's Life of Mahomet, 8th edition, p. 25, to which the reader is referred. I would also refer the reader to R. Bosworth Smith's Muhammad and Muhammadanism, 2d edition, pp. 185-191.

Why therefore have ye slain them, i.e., the former prophets wrought miracles and ye slew them; wherefore should I gratify your desire and cause fire to come down from heaven; would ye believe? Sale says, "Among these the commentators reckon Zacharias and John the Baptist!"

(185) If they accuse thee of imposture. This passage, following closely upon the apology of Muhammad for not giving the usual signs of apostleship demanded by the Jews and others, seems to give the ground of this accusation; i.e., Muhammad's imposture was evident, because he refused to perform miracles which would prove that he had been sent from God. Muhammad's reply to this charge is not in accordance with facts-"The apostles before thee have been accounted impostors." It is not true that all apostles were regarded as impostors. Certainly, such as were so accused were enabled to work such miracles as proved even to their enemies that "there was a prophet of God in Israel," 1 Kings xviii. 36, &c. Such "evident demonstrations" were expected of Muhammad, but never given. Even his own followers have been driven to invent a multitude of stories detailing the miracles wrought by their prophet. These have been recorded in their traditions. The following are samples of the miracles thus invented :-"A camel weeps, and is calmed at the touch of Muhammad; the hair grows upon a boy's head when the prophet lays his hand upon it; a horse is cured from stumbling; the eye of a soldier is healed and made better than the other; he marked his sheep on the ear, and the species retain the mark to this day, &c."-Arnold's Islám and Christianity, p. 352. See Mishqat-ul-Masabih, Urdú edition, vol. iv. pp. 571-623.

(186) Every soul shall taste of death. Some Muslims understand this as applying to all created things. At the first sound of the last

day of resurrection; and he who shall be far removed from hell fire, and shall be admitted into paradise, shall be happy; but the present life is only a deceitful provision. (187) Ye shall surely be proved in your possessions, and in your persons; and ye shall bear from those unto whom the scripture was delivered before you, and from the idolaters, much hurt; but if ye be patient and fear God, this is a matter that is absolutely determined. (188) And when GOD accepted the covenant of those to whom the book of the law was given, saying, Ye shall surely publish it unto mankind, ye shall not hide it: yet they threw it behind their backs, and sold it for a small price: but woful is the price for which they have sold it. (189) Think not that they who rejoice at what they have done, and expect to

trump all angels will die, including Isráfíl, who will blow the trumpet. God will then raise Isráfil, who will again sound the trump, and all the dead will rise to judgment.

Shall be admitted into paradise, i.e., at the resurrection. For the state of the dead between death and the resurrection, see Prelim. Disc., pp. 127-138.

(187) Proved in your possessions, &c. The Tafsir-i-Raufi refers this passage to the loss of property at the flight from Makkah, and the loss of life in the wars for the faith. It seems to me, however, the passage better applies to the temporary ascendancy of the Jews and hypocrites of Madina after the battle of Ohod.

(188) Ye shall surely publish it, i.e., the prophecies concerning Muhammad contained in the Pentateuch. The claim set up here is virtually this, that the great burden of prophecy was the advent of Muhammad, just as Christians regard the spirit of prophecy to be the testimony of God to Jesus as the Christ. It would appear from this passage that Muhammad, consciously or unconsciously,-being deceived by designing converts from Judaism,-had conceived that the prophecies of the Old Testament concerning the Coming One related to him. Accordingly, those Jewish Rabbies who denied the existence of any prophecies relating to him are here stigmatised as having sold themselves to the work of perverting their Scriptures so as to oppose him.

Let it again be observed that the charge of corruption is not laid upon the volume of Scriptures extant in the days of Muhammad, but against the living interpreters of those Scriptures.

Woful is the price. "Whoever concealeth the knowledge which God has given him," says Muhammad, "God shall put on him a bridle of fire on the day of resurrection."- Sale.

(189) They who rejoice, &c., i.e., who think they have done a com

be praised for what they have not done; think not, O prophet, that they shall escape from punishment, for they shall suffer a painful punishment.

|| (190) And unto GOD belongeth the kingdom of heaven R 79.

and earth: GOD is almighty. (191) Now in the creation of heaven and earth, and the vicissitude of night and day, are signs unto those who are endued with understanding; (192) who remember GOD standing, and sitting, and lying on their sides; and meditate on the creation of heaven and earth, saying, O LORD, thou hast not created this in vain; far be it from thee: therefore deliver us from the torment of hell fire: (193) O LORD, surely whom thou shalt throw into the fire, thou wilt also cover with shame: nor shall the ungodly have any to help them. (194) O LORD, we have heard a preacher inviting us to the faith and saying, Believe in your LORD: and we believed. O LORD, forgive us therefore our sins, and expiate our evil

mendable deed in concealing and perverting the testimonies in the Pentateuch concerning Muhammad, and in disobeying God's commands to the contrary. "It is said that Muhammad once asking some Jews concerning a passage in their law, they gave him an answer very different from the truth, and were mightily pleased that they had, as they thought, deceived him. Others, however, think this passage relates to some pretended Muhammadans who rejoiced in their hypocrisy and expected to be commended for their wickedness."-Sale, Baidháwi.

(191) This verse belongs to the Makkan revelations. Comp. chap. ii. 165.

(192) Who remember God standing, &c., viz., "at all times and in all postures. Al Baidhawi mentions a saying of Muhammad to one Imrán Ibn Husain, to this purpose: Pray standing, if thou art able; if not. sitting; and if thou canst not sit up, then as thou liest along.' Al Shafa'i directs that the sick should pray lying on their right side."-Sale.

This passage describes the character of those mentioned in the previous verse.

(194) A preacher. This is the name which Muhammad constantly assumed at Makkah. See chap. vii. 2, chap. xiii. 29, 40, chap. xvi. 84, &c. Nought but the political power acquired at Madína changed the preacher into a soldier.

And expiate. The word used here is kaffara, which is the cognate of the Hebrew, to cover, to expiate. While, however, the language suggests atonement by sacrifice (and the idea was not

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