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(130) If they turn back, say, GOD is my support; there is no GOD but he. On him do I trust; and he is the LORD of the magnificent throne.

want of zeal in the crusade against the infidels. It is notable that he was never grieved at the assassination of Káb and the plunder of the Quraish at Nakhla during the sacred months, or the slaughter of eight hundred helpless prisoners in cold blood.

CHAPTER X.

ENTITLED SURAT AL YUNAS (JONAH).

Revealed at Makkah.

INTRODUCTION.

THIS chapter is so called on account of the mention of the Prophet Jonah in ver. 98. It is undoubtedly of Makkan origin. There are some, however, who would assign vers. 41 and 94, or vers. 94-97, or 41-109, or even the whole Sura, to Madína. The only ground for such an opinion seems to be the reference made to the Jews in various parts of the chapter, which Jews are supposed to be of Madína. But, granting that the Jews referred to belonged to Madína, it does not follow that the chapter belongs to Madína, for history proves that for some time previous to the Hijra, Muhammad had intercourse with many of the people of Madina, some of whom were no doubt Jews. A tradition tells of Jews going to Makkah to question the Prophet, which, though in great measure apocryphal, must have had some foundation in fact. However this may be, Muhammad's familiarity with Jewish history and tradition shows that he had Jews among his friends and acquaintance. Certainly the matter of this chapter, as well as the style and animus of discourse, points to Makkah.

Date of the Revelations.

Little can be said as to the date of the revelations. The allusion to the famine in ver. 22 points to a period not far removed from the Hijra; and if what has been said of Muhammad's intercourse with the Jews of Madina be well founded, that fact points to the same period.

Principal Subjects.

The Makkans charge their Prophet with sorcery because he
is a man from among them.

The Creator and Ruler of the universe the only true God
Believers rewarded at death for good deeds.

VOL. II.

VERSES

.

1, 2

3

4

X

Unbelievers punished after death

VERSES

4

God's works are signs to all men.

Rewards and punishments of the faithful and the unbelieving

God's purpose in prospering the wicked

Men

pray to God in affliction, but forget Him with the return
of prosperity

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The people of Makkah warned by the example of former generations

The Quraish desire a different Qurán-Muhammad protests his inability to alter it.

Idolaters trust intercessors who can neither profit nor harm
them

All men originally professed one religion
The people demand of Muhammad a sign

When men despise the judgments of God he threatens
greater suffering

Unbelievers remember God in distress by land and sea, but

forget Him when delivered

Life likened to water which sustains vegetable life
Paradise for Muslims and hell for the infidels
Idolaters will be deserted by their gods in the judgment-day
Idolaters exhorted to worship him whom they recognise as

their Creator, Preserver, and Governor.

The Qurán no forgery; it confirms the former Scriptures
Those who charge Muhammad with imposture challenged

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Some believe in the Qurán, others reject it

The unbelieving Quraish declared to be reprobate

5,6

7-11 12

13

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14, 15

16-18

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32-37

38

39, 40

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42-47

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The Qurán an admonition and direction to the unbelievers
Lawful food not to be prohibited.

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The blessedness of those who believe and fear God
Unbelievers cannot harm the Prophet

Those rebuked who say that God hath begotten children
Muhammad likened to Noah and other prophets.
Moses and Aaron sent to Pharaoh and his princes

They are rejected as sorcerers and perverters of the national

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A few of the people only believe on them
Moses and Aaron with the believers put their trust in God.
The Israelites commanded to be constant in prayer to God.
Moses's prayer, that God would destroy the Egyptians, is
heard

Pharaoh and his people drowned in the sea.

He repents and is raised out of the sea for a sign to the
people.

The Israelites are provided with a habitation and blessing
Jews and Christians appealed to in confirmation of the state-

ments of the Qurán

VERSES

83 84-86

87

88, 89

90

.

90-92

93

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No kind of miracle will suffice to make the reprobate believe 96-98
Infidels do not believe on Muhammad because God does not

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The people of Makkah exhorted to accept the true ortho-
dox faith
Muhammad not responsible for the faith or unbelief of the
people

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104-107

The Prophet exhorted to be patient

108
109

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.

MUNZIL.

R &

(1) AL. R. These are the signs of the wise book. THIRD (2) Is it a strange thing unto the men of Makkah, that we have revealed our will unto a man from among them, saying, Denounce threats unto men if they believe not; and bear good tidings unto those who believe, that on the merit of their sincerity they have an interest with their LORD? The unbelievers say, This is manifest sorcery. (3) Verily your LORD is GOD, who hath created the heavens and the earth in six days; and then ascended

(1) A. L. R. See Prelim Disc., pp. 100-102.

(2) A man from among them. "And not one of the most powerful among them neither; so that the Quraish said it was a wonder God could find out no other messenger than the orphan pupil of Ábu Tálib."-Sale, Baidhawi.

This is manifest sorcery. "Meaning the Quran. According to the reading of some copies, the words may be rendered, 'This man (i.e., Muhammad) is no other than a manifest sorcerer.'"-Sale.

(3) In six days. See note on chap. vii. 55.

his throne, to take on himself the government of all things. There is no intercessor, but by his permission. This is GOD, your LORD; therefore serve him. Will ye not consider? (4) Unto him shall ye all return according to the certain promise of GOD; for he produceth a creature and then causeth it to return again: that he may reward those who believe and do that which is right, with equity. But as for the unbelievers, they shall drink boiling water, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment for that they have disbelieved. (5) It is he who hath ordained the sun to shine by day, and the moon for a light by night; and had appointed her stations, that ye might know the number of years, and the computation of time. GOD hath not created this, but with truth. He explaineth his signs unto people who understand. (6) Moreover in the vicissitudes of night and day, and whatever GOD hath created in heaven and earth, are surely signs unto men who fear him. (7) Verily they who hope not to meet us at the last day, and delight in this present life, and rest securely in the same, and who are negligent of our signs: (8) their dwelling shall be hell-fire, for that which they have deserved. (9) But as to those who believe, and work righteousness, their LORD will direct them because of their faith; they shall have rivers flowing through gardens of pleasure. (10) Their prayer therein shall be Praise be unto thee, O GOD! and their salutation therein shall be Peace! (11)

No intercessor, but &c. "These words were revealed to refute the foolish opinion of the idolatrous Makkans, who imagined their idols were intercessors with God for them."-Sale. See notes on chap. ii. 47, 123, 254; vi. 50.

(4) Boiling water. See chap. ii. 38.

(5) But with truth, i.e., to manifest the truth of the Divine unity. The Makkan preacher here sets forth God the Creator as the true object of worship.

(7) Who hope not to meet us, i.e., the Quraish, who strenuously denied the doctrine of bodily resurrection.

(9) Believe and work righteousness. See note on chap. ii. 25, 223; and chap. iii. 15.

(10) Their salutation. "Either the mutual salutation of the blessed to one another, or that of the angels to the blessed.”—Sale.

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