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|| (189) It is he who hath created you from one person, R 4. and out of him produced his wife, that he might dwell with her: and when he had known her, she carried a light burden for a time, wherefore she walked easily therewith. But when it became more heavy, she called upon GOD their LORD, saying, If thou give us a child rightly shaped, we will surely be thankful. (190) Yet when he had given them a child rightly shaped, they attributed companions unto him, for that which he had given them. But far be that from GOD which they associated with him! (191) Will they associate with him false gods which create nothing, but are themselves created; (192) and

(189) One person. This certainly refers to Adam. The story given by Sale below is an invention of the commentators to escape from the conclusion that Adam and Eve became idolaters.

(190) They attributed companions unto him. "For the explaining of this whole passage the commentators tell the following story. They say that when Eve was big with her first child, the devil came to her and asked her whether she knew what she carried within her, and which way she should be delivered of it; suggesting that possibly it might be a beast. She, being unable to give an answer to this question, went in a fright to Adam, and acquainted him with the matter, who not knowing what to think of it, grew sad and pensive. Whereupon the devil appeared to her again (or, as others say, to Adam), and pretended that he by his prayers would obtain of God that she might be safely delivered of a son in Adam's likeness, provided they would promise to name him Abdul Hárith, or the servant of al Harith (which was the devil's name among the angels), instead of Abdullah, or the servant of God, as Adam had designed. This proposal was agreed to, and accordingly, when the child was born, they gave it that name, upon which it immediately died. with this Adam and Eve are here taxed as an act of idolatry. The story looks like a rabbinical fiction, and seems to have no other foundation than Cain's being called by Moses Obed-adámah, that is, a tiller of the ground, which might be translated into Arabic by

Abdul Hárith.


"But al Baidhawi, thinking it unlikely that a prophet (as Adam is by the Muhammadans supposed to have been) should be guilty of such an action, imagines the Qurán in this place means Kussai, one of Muhammad's ancestors, and his wife, who begged issue of God, and having four sons granted them, called their names Abd Manaf, Abd Shams, Abdul Uzza, and Abdul Dár, after the names of four principal idols of the Quraish. And the following words also he supposes to relate to their idolatrous posterity."-Sale, Baidhawi, Yahya.

can neither give them assistance, nor help themselves? (193) And if ye invite them to the true direction, they will not follow you: it will be equal unto you whether ye invite them, or whether ye hold your peace. (194) Verily the false deities whom ye invoke besides GOD are servants like unto you. Call therefore upon them, and let them give you an answer, if ye speak truth. (195) Have they feet, to walk with? Or have they hands, to lay hold with? Or have they eyes, to see with? Or have they ears, to hear with? Say, Call upon your companions, and then lay a snare for me, and defer it not; (196) for GOD is my protector, who sent down the book of the Qurán; and he protecteth the righteous. (197) But they whom ye invoke besides him cannot assist you, neither do they help themselves; (198) and if ye call on them to direct you, they will not hear. Thou seest them look towards thee, but they see not. (199) Use indulgence, and command that which is just, and withdraw far from the ignorant. (200) And if an evil suggestion from Satan be suggested unto thee, to divert thee from thy duty, have recourse unto GOD: for he heareth and knoweth. (201) Verily they who fear God, when a temptation from Satan assaileth them, remember the divine commands, and behold,

(194) The false deities

are here alluded to.

are servants. The sun, moon, and stars

(195) Comp. Isa. xliv. 8-21, and Ps. cxv. 3-8.

Lay a snare for me. This points to a period near the Hijra when the Quraish were ready by any means to destroy their dangerous neighbour. Muhammad expresses confidence in God; may he not have already seen the way to deliverance in the completed arrangements made for retiring to Madína?

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(199) Use indulgence; or, as the words may also be translated, Take the superabundant overplus, meaning that Muhammad should accept such voluntary alms from the people as they could spare. But the passage, if taken in this sense, was abrogated by the precept of legal alms, which was given at Madina."-Sale.

It is more natural to understand this as an exhortation to Muhammad to be forbearing toward the idolaters of Makkah.

And withdraw. This seems clearly to refer to the Hijra. See chap vi. 106.

(200) See notes on chaps. iv. 116, and vi. 112.

they clearly see the danger of sin and the wiles of the devil. (202) But as for the brethren of the devils, they shall continue them in error, and afterwards they shall not preserve themselves therefrom. (203) And when thou bringest not a verse of the Qurán unto them, they say, Hast thou not put it together? Answer, I follow that only which is revealed unto me from my LORD. This book containeth evident proofs from your LORD, and is a direction and mercy unto people who believe. (204) And when the Qurán is read attend thereto, and keep silence, that ye may obtain mercy. (205) And meditate on thy LORD in thine own mind, with humility and fear, and without loud speaking, evening and morning; and be not one of the negligent. (206) Moreover the angels who are with my LORD do not proudly disdain his service, but they celebrate his praise and worship him.

(202) The brethren. Those under the influence of devils.

(203) Hast thou not put it together? i.e., "Hast thou not yet contrived what to say; or canst thou obtain no revelation from God?" -Sule.

The garbled stories, learned from Jewish tradition, so plentifully given in this chapter, entirely justify the taunt intended here. See note on ver. 85.

Muhammad's reply is, as usual, a reassertion of his own inspira


(204) Keep silence. The occasion on which this verse was revealed was as follows:-A young Muslim, standing behind the Prophet, kept repeating in a loud voice the passages of the Quran which were being read, thus creating confusion in the service. The passage enjoins silence on the part of all Muslims during prayers, except the Imám or leader.

(205) Evening and morning. The five times for prayer probably had not yet been fixed. The commentators say these are the most important seasons of prayer.

(206) Worship him. This is one of the fifteen places in the Qurán where the reader must, according to some, prostrate himself in reading; according to others, this prostration is meritorious, though not required.



Revealed at Madina.


THE title of this Sura was taken from the question of the first verse concerning spoils. The chapter, however, has but little to do with this subject, almost the whole of it being taken up with a description of the miraculous character of the battle of Badr, with allusions to events immediately preceding or following it, by which the faithful are confirmed in their confidence in God and Muhammad. Islám is declared to have now received the seal of God to its truth, and consequently all who hereafter may oppose it will merit shame and destruction both in this world and in the world to come.

The confident and often defiant tone, perceptible in this chapter, may be accounted for by the circumstances under which it was written. Muhammad had been successful beyond expectation, and the sometimes despondent Muslims were now exulting over those from whom they had so lately fled in fear. Muhammad, ever ready to use his opportunities, declares this victory to be decisive proof of the divine favour. God had brought it all about that he "might accomplish the thing which was decreed to be done; that he who perisheth hereafter may perish after demonstrative evidence, and that he who liveth may live by the same evidence."

Accordingly the infidels are denounced in no measured terms. Even the proud Quraish are addressed in a patronising manner, and are offered an amnesty on condition of their ceasing to oppose. The hypocrites and hitherto disaffected inhabitants of Madína are reproved and warned, while the duplicity of the Jews is threatened.

There is, however, the anticipation of future trouble. It required no more than the sagacity of a politician to foretell it. The Muslims

are therefore urged to prepare for the holy war, and to fight with that assurance which enables one man to face ten of his adversaries. God would be on their side, and the infidels would only rush on to certain destruction.

Nothing could be in stronger contrast than the spirit of this chapter compared with the latter part of chapter iii., written just after the Muslim defeat at Ohod. Such a comparison should make it clear to Muslims that the revelation of the Qurán, instead of being copied from the Preserved Table under the throne of God, was copied from the heart-table of Muhammad himself.

Probable Date of the Revelations.

It is certain that the greater part of this chapter was written immediately after the battle of Badr in A.H. 2. Indeed there is no part of it which may not be referred to this period excepting vers. 73-75, which must be assigned to the earlier months of A.H. I. Sale mentions the fact that some authorities would place vers. 30-36 among the Makkan revelations, but the evidence seems to me to be against them. This passage might, however, belong to an earlier period than A.HI. 2, inasmuch as it relates to the flight from Makkah. Yet the victory of Badr would naturally recall to Muhammad's mind the circumstances of his flight, and thus lead to their mention here.

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God gives the Muslims either the Quraish or their caravan
The victory of Badr a seal to Islám

Angelic aid vouchsafed to Muhammad


The Muslims refreshed and comforted before the battle


The angels enjoined to comfort the faithful by destroying

the infidel Quraish


Infidels are doomed to punishment here and hereafter
Muslims are never to turn their backs on the infidels on

13, 14

pain of hell-fire .

15, 16

The victory of Badr a miracle

The Quraish are warned against further warfare with the

17, 18


Muslims exhorted to steadfastness in faith.

20, 21

Infidels compared to deaf and dumb brutes

22, 23

Believers are to submit themselves to God and his Apostle


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