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apostle to the children of Israel; and he shall say, Verily I come unto you with a sign from your LORD; for I will make before you, of clay, as it were the figure of a bird; then I will breathe thereon, and it shall become a bird, by the permission of GOD; and I will heal him. that hath been blind from his birth; and the leper: and I will raise the dead by the permission of GOD: and I will prophesy unto you what ye eat, and what ye lay up for store in your houses. Verily herein will be a sign unto you, if ye believe. And (49) I come to confirm. the law which was revealed before me, and to allow unto you as lawful part of that which hath been forbidden. you and I come unto you with a sign from your LORD; therefore fear GOD, and obey me. (50) Verily GOD is my LORD, and your LORD; therefore serve him. This is

tioned. Jesus being seven years old, and at play with several children of his age, they made several figures of birds and beasts, for their diversion, of clay; and each preferring his own workmanship, Jesus told them that he would make his walk and leap; which accordingly, at his command, they did. He made also several figures of sparrows and other birds, which flew about or stood on his hands as he ordered them, and also ate and drank when he offered them meat and drink. The children telling this to their parents, were forbidden to play any more with Jesus, whom they held to be a sorcerer" (Evang. Infant.)-Sale.

By the permission of God. See note on ver. 39. The commentators, Baidhawi, &c., understand this phrase to have been added lest any one should suppose Jesus to be divine. See Sale.

What ye eat, &c. This would furnish evidence of the power of Jesus to reveal secrets. These miracles were the seal of prophecy to Je us, as were the verses (ayát = signs) of the Qurán to the prophetic claim of Muhammad.

(49) To confirm the law, i.e., Jesus attested the genuineness and credibility of the Jewish Scriptures. The language implies the presence of these Scriptures in the time of Jesus, as does similar language imply that the Christian Scriptures were present in the days of Muhammad.

Part of that... forbidden you. "Such as the eating of fish that have neither fins nor scales, the caul and fat of animals, and camels' flesh, and to work on the Sabbath. These things, say the commentators, being arbitrary institutions in the law of Moses, were abrogated by Jesus, as several of the same kind instituted by the latter have been since abrogated by Muhammad.”—Sale, Jaláluddin.

the right way. (51) But when Jesus perceived their unbelief, he said, Who will be my helpers towards GOD? The apostles answered, We will be the helpers of GOD; we believe in GOD, and do thou bear witness that we are true believers. (52) O LORD, we believe in that which thou hast sent down, and we have followed thy apostle; write us down therefore with those who bear witness of him. (53) And the Jews devised a stratagem

As intimated in note on ver. 39, we here see that Muhammad's endeavour is to make Christ appear to be a prophet like himself. The mission, character, authority, and experience of all the prophets were none other than those assumed by Muhammad for himself.

(51) The apostles. The twelve disciples of Jesus are here likened to the companions and helpers of Muhammad.

"In Arabic al Hawáriyún, which word they derive from Hára, to be white, and suppose the apostles were so called either from the candour and sincerity of their minds, or because they were princes and wore white garments, or else because they were by trade fullers (Jalaluddin) According to which last opinion, their vocation is thus related: That as Jesus passed by the seaside, he saw some fullers at work, and accosting them, said, 'Ye cleanse these cloths, but cleanse not your hearts;' upon which they believed on him. But the true etymology seems to be from the Ethiopic verb Hawyra, to go; whence Hawárya signifies one that is sent, a messenger or apostle."-Sule.

The Tafsir-i-Raufi relates a story current among Muslims as to the calling of these disciples, to the effect that Jesus, being persecuted by the Jews, fled to Egypt. On the banks of the river Nile he found some fishermen, whom he invited to accept Islám and to become his followers, which they did.

(52) We believe on the gospel. Jesus.

We have followed the apostle, i.e.,

(53) Stratagem. This is better translated by Rodwell, plot. The plotting of the Jews was to kill Jesus; God plotted for his delivery. Sale remarks on this as follows:-"This stratagem of God's was the taking of Jesus up into heaven, and stamping his likeness on another person, who was apprehended and crucified in his stead. For it is the constant doctrine of the Muhammadans that it was not Jesus himself who underwent that ignominious death, but somebody else in his shape and resemblance (chap. iv. 156, 157). The person crucified some will have to be a spy that was sent to entrap him; others that it was one Titian, who by the direction of Judas entered in at a window of the house where Jesus was, to kill him; and others that it was Judas himself, who agreed with the rulers of the Jews to betray him for thirty pieces of silver, and led those who were sent to take him.

"They add, that Jesus, after his crucifixion in effigy, was sent

against him; but GOD devised a stratagem against them; and GOD is the best deviser of stratagems.

down again to the earth to comfort his mother and disciples, and acquaint them how the Jews were deceived; and was then taken up a second time into heaven.

"It is supposed by several that this story was an original invention of Muhammad's; but they are certainly mistaken; for several sectaries held the same opinion long before his time. The Basilidians. in the very beginning of Christianity, denied that Christ himself suffered, but that Simon the Cyrenean was crucified in his place. The Cerinthians before them, and the Carpocratians next (to name no more of those who affirmed Jesus to have been a mere man), did believe the same thing; that it was not himself, but one of his followers very like him that was crucified. Photius tells us that he read a book entitled, The Journeys of the Apostles, relating the acts of Peter, John, Andrew, Thomas, and Paul; and among other things contained therein, this was one, that Christ was not crucified, but another in his stead, and that therefore he laughed at his crucifiers, or those who thought they had crucified him.

"I have in another place mentioned an apocryphal Gospel of Barnabas, a forgery originally of some nominal Christians, but interpolated since by Muhammadans, which gives this part of the history of Jesus with circumstances too curious to be omitted. It is therein related, that the moment the Jews were going to apprehend Jesus in the garden, he was snatched up into the third heaven by the ministry of four angels, Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, and Uriel; that he will not die till the end of the world, and that it was Judas who was crucified in his stead, God having permitted that traitor to appear so like his master in the eyes of the Jews that they took and delivered him to Pilate; that this resemblance was so great that it deceived the Virgin Mary and the apostles themselves; but that Jesus Christ afterwards obtained leave of God to go and comfort them; that Barnabas having then asked him why the Divine Goodness had suffered the mother and disciples of so holy a prophet to believe even for one moment that he had died in so ignominious a manner, Jesus returned the following answer: 0 Barnabas, believe me that every sin, how small soever, is punished by God with great torment, because God is offended with sin. My mother therefore and faithful disciples, having loved me with a mixture of earthly love, the just God has been pleased to punish this love with their present grief, that they might not be punished for it hereafter in the flames of hell. And as for me, though I have myself been blameless in the world, yet other men having called me God and the son of God, therefore God, that I might not be mocked by the devils at the day of judgment, has been pleased that in this world I should be mocked by men with the death of Judas, making everybody believe that I died upon the cross. And hence it is that this mocking is still to continue till the coming of Muhammad, the messenger of God, who, coming into the world, will undeceive every one who shall believe in the law of God from this mistake.'"

|| (54) When GOD said, O Jesus, verily I will cause SULS. thee to die, and I will take thee up unto me, and I will R deliver thee from the unbelievers; and I will place those who follow thee above the unbelievers, until the day of resurrection then unto me shall ye return, and I will judge between you of that concerning which ye disagree. (55) Moreover, as for the infidels, I will punish them with a grievous punishment in this world, and in that which is to come; and there shall be none to help them. (56) But they who believe, and do that which is right, he shall give them their reward: for GOD loveth not the wicked doers. (57) These signs and this prudent admonition do we rehearse unto thee. (58) Verily the likeness of Jesus in the sight of GOD is as the likeness of Adam; he created him out of the dust, and then said unto him, Be; and he was. (59) This is the truth from thy LORD;

he "

(54) I will cause thee to die, &c. These words are a source of great difficulty to the commentators, as they seem clearly to contradict the statement of chap. iv. 156. All Muslims agree that Jesus was taken up to heaven. This verse, however, taken as a chronological statenient of events, would make it necessary to believe he had died before was taken up" into heaven. The same is true of chap. v. 117. To evade this, some deny the chronological arrangement demanded by the copulative and. Others admit the order, and either claim that Jesus did die a natural death-remaining under its power for three hours or explain the death spoken of here in a figurative manner, regarding it as a promise that God would cause him "to die a spiritual death to all worldly desires." (See notes by Rodwell and Sale in loco.) Others refer the passage to the time when Jesus will come to destroy Dajjal; when, say the commentators, Jesus will die and be buried in the empty tomb prepared for him at Madína, and afterwards arise at the judgment day.

These interpretations are manifestly mere attempts at evasion. But for chap. iv. 156, no Muslim would have any difficulty in accepting the plain common-sense import of this verse.

I will place those . . . above unbelievers. By unbelievers Muslims understand the Jews to be meant. This is, however, a limitation no way justified by the Qurán. The term is general, and fairly indicates all who reject the gospel of Jesus "until the judgment day." The allusion is, therefore, to the final and constant victory of Islám, and the followers of Jesus are here regarded as true Muslims.

(58) The likeness of Jesus, &c., i.e., both were brought into being miraculously, neither having a human father. "Jalaluddín says the resemblance consists in this-both were created by the word of


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be not therefore one of those who doubt; (60) and whoever shall dispute with thee concerning him, after the knowledge which hath been given thee, say unto them, Come, let us call together our sons and your sons and our wives and your wives, and ourselves and yourselves; then let us make imprecations, and lay the curse of GOD on those who lie. (61) Verily this is a true history: and there is no GOD but GOD; and GOD is most mighty and wise. (62) If they turn back, GoD well knoweth the evil-doers.

|| (63) Say, O ye who have received the scripture, come to a just determination between us and you; that we wor

God (compare the verses in 1 Cor. xv.) Adam made from the dust, Christ took flesh from the Virgin; Adam sinned, Christ sinned not; Adam a man, Christ a spirit proceeding from God, according to Muhammad.”—Brinckman in Notes on Islám.

(60) Come let us call together our sons, &c. This passage refers to a visit paid to Muhammad at Madina by Abu Hárith, bishop of Najrán, with other Christians, who came to make a treaty of peace with the prophet of Arabia, now rapidly growing in political power. A controversy having arisen between them and Muhammad, the latter proposed to settle it in the strange manner proposed in the text. The Christians very consistently declined the test proposed. The spirit of the two religions is well illustrated by the conduct of Muhammad and Jesus under similar circumstances. See also notes of Rodwell in loco, and of Muir's Life of Mahomet, vol. ii. pp. 302, 303.

Sale gives the story of the commentators Jalaluddín and Baidhawi as follows:-"Some Christians, with, their bishop, named Abu Hárith, coming to Muhammad as ambassadors from the inhabitants of Najrán, and entering into some disputes with him touching religion and the history of Jesus Christ, they agreed the next morning to abide the trial here mentioned, as a quick way of deciding which of them were in the wrong. Muhammad met them accordingly, accompanied by his daughter Fátima, his son-in-law Ali, and his two grandsons, Hasan and Husain, and desired them to wait till he had said his prayers. But when they saw him kneel down, their resolution failed them, and they durst not venture to curse him, but submitted to pay him tribute.

(63) Ye who have received the Scriptures, i.e., Jews and Christians. A just determination. The proposal here, though carrying great pretension of liberality and reason, really means out-and-out acceptance of Islám.

Lords. This expression has special reference to the dignity accorded by Jews and Christians to their religious guides. None are

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