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for thou art he who heareth and knoweth. (36) And when she was delivered of it, she said, LORD, verily I have brought forth a female (and GOD well knew what she had brought forth), and a male is not as a female.

same names, that they must therefore necessarily be the same person besides, such a mistake is inconsistent with a number of other places in the Qurán, whereby it manifestly appears that Muhammad well knew and asserted that Moses preceded Jesus several ages. And the commentators accordingly fail not to tell us that there had passed about one thousand eight hundred years between Amrán the father of Moses and Amrán the father of the Virgin Mary they also make them the sons of different persons; the first, they say, was the son of Yeshar, or Izhar (though he was really his brother), the son of Káhath, the son of Levi; and the other was the son of Mathán, whose genealogy they trace, but in a very corrupt and imperfect manner, up to David, and thence to Adam.

"It must be observed that though the Virgin Mary is called in the Quran the sister of Aaron, yet she is nowhere called the sister of Moses; however, some Muhammadan writers have imagined that the same individual Mary, the sister of Moses, was miraculously preserved alive from his time till that of Jesus Christ, purposely to become the mother of the latter."

To be dedicated. "The Arabic word is free, but here signifies particularly one that is free or detached from all worldly desires and occupations, and wholly devoted to God's service."-Sale, Jalaluddin.

(36) I have brought forth a female. Hannah prayed for a son (1 Sam. i. II; see note on ver. 35). The birth of a female seemed to be a disappointment, as such would not be suitable for the service of the Temple. For extracts from the spurious Gospels containing the traditions which are here incorporated in the Qurán, see Arnold's Islám and Christianity (pp. 150-155) and Muir's Life of Mahomet (vol. ii. pp. 282, 283). These both draw from the Christologie des Koran, by Gerock, 1839, pp. 30-47.

I have called her Mary, &c. "This expression alludes to a tradition that Abraham, when the devil tempted him to disobey God in not sacrificing his son, drove the fiend away by throwing stones at him; in memory of which, the Muhammadans, at the pilgrimage of Makkah, throw a certain number of stones at the devil, with certain ceremonies, in the valley of Miná. (See Prelim. Disc., p. 188.)

"It is not improbable that the pretended immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary is intimated in this passage; for according to a tradition of Muhammad, every person that comes into the world is touched at his birth by the devil, and therefore cries out: Mary and her son only excepted, between whom and the evil spirit God placed a veil, so that his touch did not reach them. And for this reason, they say, neither of them were guilty of any sin, like the rest of the children of Adam: which peculiar grace they obtained

I have called her MARY; and I commend her to thy protection, and also her issue; against Satan driven away with stones. (37) Therefore the LORD accepted

her with a gracious acceptance, and caused her to bear an excellent offspring. (38) And Zacharias took care of the child; whenever Zacharias went into the chamber to her, he found provisions with her: and he said, O Mary whence hadst thou this? she answered, This is from GOD: for GOD provideth for whom he pleaseth without measure. There Zacharias called on his LORD, and said, LORD, give me from thee a good offspring, for thou art the hearer of prayer. (39) And the angels called to him, while

by virtue of this recommendation of them by Hannah to God's protection."-Sale, Jalaluddin, and Baidhawi.

(37) The Lord accepted her, i.e., though a female, she was received into the Temple as one dedicated to God. Zacharias became her guardian and cared for her.

(38) He found provisions with her. "The commentators say that none went into Mary's apartment but Zacharias himself, and that he locked seven doors upon her; yet he found she had always winter fruits in summer and summer fruits in winter."-Sale.

This story owes its origin to Christian tradition. See Historia de Nativ. Marie et de Infan. Salv. (chap. vi.) and Protev. Jacob. (chap. viii.), quoted in Muir's Life of Mahomet (p. 283) and in Arnold's Islam and Christianity (pp. 150, 151).

There Zacharias called on his Lord. The prayer would seem to have been offered in the inner chamber of the Temple assigned, according to the story, to Mary. The commentators think the prayer was suggested by the miraculous supply of food furnished to Mary. Zacharias was at this time ninety-nine years old, and his wife ninety-eight (Tafsir--Raufi). Abdul Qadir says Zacharias prayed in secret, because, at this age, to have prayed openly for offspring would have exposed him to ridicule.

Offspring. In chap. xix. 5, "a successor," from which Gerock would infer that Zacharias did not pray for a son, but for an heir only. But in the ninth verse of that same chapter he says, "How shall I have a son?" &c. This decides clearly in favour of that interpretation which makes offspring to mean an heir from his own body.

(39) The angels. In chap. xix. 17 it is said that a "spirit" (Gabriel) came to Mary. The commentators interpret "angels" to be equivalent to "spirit," and understand Gabriel to be meant. They account discrepancies of this sort as of little moment.

The word which cometh from God. See notes on chap. ii. 86. The Muslim interpretation, that Jesus is here called the WORD because

he stood praying in the chamber, saying, Verily GOD promiseth thee a son named John, who shall bear witness to the Word which cometh from GOD; an honourable person, chaste, and one of the righteous prophets.

(40) He

he was conceived by the word or command of God is, to say the least, unsatisfactory.

The "witness" of John concerning the WORD was very different from that of Muhammad. Is it possible that he should have learned so much of John and Jesus from tradition, and not have known more of the character of the latter, as witnessed by John and Jesus himself? In answer to this question, I venture to give the following: -(1.) Muhammad heard more than he believed. This is evident from the effort he made to refute the doctrine of the Trinity, the Sonship of Christ, and the doctrine of Christ's death and resurrection. (2.) What he learned concerning these and other doctrines he learned from hearsay, and usually from unreliable sources. Hence the indiscriminate mixing up of statements obtained originally from the Bible and tradition-Jewish and Christian. (3.) He seems to have learned most of what he knew of Christianity, and perhaps of Judaism also, after his arrival in Madína, and consequently after his claim to be a prophet had been assumed. His most definite and extended statements regarding Bible story are found in the Madina chapters. (4.) The criterion by which he decided the true and false as to what he heard was his own prophetic claims and the character of his religion. Whatever would exalt Jesus over himself was rejected. Hence Jesus is only "the son of Mary;" he is born miraculously, but is not divine; he wrought miracles, but always by "the permission of God" (ver. 48), &c. Again, whatever was contrary to the religion he promulgated was either refuted or ignored; the character of the prophets is always moulded after his own; the character of all infidels in former ages is like that of the unbelieving Quraish and Jews of Arabia.

Making every reasonable allowance for the Arabian prophet on the score of ignorance and on the score of misrepresentations to which he was no doubt subjected, still enough remains to substantiate the charge of imposture, however displeasing this charge may be to his admirers and friends. The facts in this matter are against them. Muhammad put these statements concerning matters of history into the mouth of God, and so promulgated them as his infallible word, confirming the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments-Scriptures of whose teaching he was personally ignoMake out half as strong a case against any one of the inspired writers of the Bible, and who among these apologists for Islám would defend him? Truly the glory of this hero-god seems to have dazzled their eyes.

rant.

Chaste. Sale says, "The original word signifies one who refrains not only from women, but from all other worldly delights and desires."

(40) How shall I have a son? See note on ver. 38. Sale states, on VOL. II.

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answered, LORD, how shall I have a son, when old age hath overtaken me, and my wife is barren? The angel said, So GOD doth that which he pleaseth. (41) Zacharias answered, LORD, give me a sign. The angel said, Thy sign shall be, that thou shalt speak unto no man for three days, otherwise than by gesture: remember thy LORD often, and praise him evening and morning.

|| (42) And when the angels said, O Mary, verily GOD hath chosen thee, and hath purified thee, and hath chosen thee above all the women of the world: (43) O Mary, be devout towards thy LORD, and worship, and bow down with those who bow down. (44) This is a secret history: we reveal it unto thee, although thou wast not present with them when they threw in their rods to cast lots which of them should have the education of Mary;

the authority of Jaláluddín, that the wife of Zacharias was eightynine.

(41) Thy sign shall be, &c. This statement disagrees with that of Luke in two particulars—(1) In duration of Zacharias's dumbness; and (2) in regarding this dumbness as merely a sign given in answer to prayer, and in no way a punishment for unbelief. The "three days," say the commentators, began with John's being conceived in his mother's womb.

Remember thy Lord often. Zacharias's tongue was only free to speak the praise of God.

(42) The angels. Gabriel. Compare Luke i. 28.

(43) Be devout, &c. This passage is also based on Christian tradition. See Rodwell's note.

Bow down, &c. The forms of worship ascribed to Jews in the Qurán are, as here, distinctively Muslim.

(44) When they threw in their rods. "When Mary was first brought to the Temple, the priests, because she was the daughter of one of their chiefs, disputed among themselves who should have the education of her. Zacharias insisted that he ought to be preferred because he had married her aunt; but the others not consenting that it should be so, they agreed to decide the matter by casting of lots; whereupon twenty-seven of them went to the river Jordan, and threw in their rods (or arrows without heads or feathers, such as the Arabs used for the same purpose), on which they had written some passages of the law, but they all sunk except that of Zacharias, which floated on the water; and he had thereupon the care of the child committed to him."-Sale, Jaláluadín.

The casting of lots, attributed here to the Jewish priests, is the same in spirit as that forbidden in chap. ii. 218.

neither wast thou with them when they strove among themselves. (45) When the angels said: O Mary, verily GOD sendeth thee good tidings, that thou shalt bear the Word proceeding from himself; (46) his name shall be CHRIST JESUS the son of Mary, honourable in this world. and in the world to come, and one of those who approach near to the presence of GOD; and he shall speak unto men in the cradle, and when he is grown up; and he shall be one of the righteous: (47) she answered, LORD, how shall I have a son, since a man hath not touched me? the angel said, So GOD createth that which he pleaseth: when he decreeth a thing, he only saith unto it, Be, and it is: (48) GOD shall teach him the scripture, and wisdom, and the law, and the gospel; and shall appoint him his

(45) The son of Mary. See note on ver. 39. The phrase "Jesus, son of Mary," had become so stereotyped in Muhammad's mind, that he here puts it in the mouth of the angels when addressing Mary herself.

Christ Jesus. The Messiah Jesus. He is honourable in this world as a prophet, and in the next as an intercessor. Muslims, however, only regard him as the intercessor of his own followers, i.e., of those who lived during the period intervening between the times of Jesus and Muhammad.

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(46) He shall speak . . . in the cradle. For his words see chap. xix. 28-34. The commentators tell many stories to illustrate this text. In regard to these Sale says:-"These seem all to have been taken from some fabulous traditions of the Eastern Christians, one of which is preserved to us in the spurious Gospel of the Infancy of Christ, where we read that Jesus spoke while yet in the cradle, and said to his mother, 'Verily I am Jesus the Son of God, the Word which thou hast brought forth, as the Angel Gabriel did declare unto thee; and my Father hath sent me to save the world.""

When he is grown up. The original word (káhlan) describes a person of between thirty and fifty years of age.

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(47) Compare with Luke i. 34, &c., to see how far this comes short of attesting the former Scriptures. (48) Scripture. . . wisdom.. law. gospel. The last two expressions describe more clearly the meaning of the first two. Jesus is said to have acquired a perfect knowledge of the law without any course of human instruction (Abdul Qádir).

A bird. "Some say it was a bat (Jalaluddin), though others suppose Jesus made several birds of different sorts (Al Thalabi). "This circumstance is also taken from the following fabulous tradition, which may be found in the spurious Gospel above men

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