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Jesus, and Job, and Jonas, and Aaron, and Solomon; and we have given thee the Qurán as we gave the psalms unto David (163) some apostles have we sent, whom we have formerly mentioned unto thee; and other apostles have we sent, whom we have not mentioned unto thee; and GOD spake unto Moses, discoursing with him; (164) apostles declaring good tidings and denouncing threats, lest men should have an argument of excuse against GOD, after the apostles had been sent unto them: GOD is mighty and wise. (165) GOD is witness of that revelation which he hath sent down unto thee; he sent it down with his special knowledge; the angels also are witnesses thereof; but GOD is a sufficient witness. (166) They who believe not, and turn aside others from the way of GOD, have erred in a wide mistake. (167) Verily those who believe not and act unjustly, GOD will by no means forgive, neither will he direct them into any other way than the way of hell; they shall remain therein forever; and this is easy with GOD. (168) O men, now is the apostle come unto you, with truth from your LORD; believe, therefore; it will be better for you. But if ye disbelieve, verily unto GoD belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth; and GOD is knowing and wise. (169) O ye who have received the scriptures, exceed not the just bounds in your religion,

(163) God spake unto Moses. This Muslims understand to be the highest form of wahi (revelation), or inspiration, as the word is incorrectly translated. In this respect, say they, Moses resembled Muhammad. Tafsir-i-Raufi in loco.

(165) God is witness. The occasion of this revelation was the infidelity of certain Jews, who being asked to testify to his prophecy before certain Quraish chiefs, declared that they did not recognise him as a prophet (Tafsír-i-Kaufi). The witness of God is in the incomparable language and style of the Qurán; the witness of angels has reference to the testimony of Gabriel. See the plural form used for the singular, chap. iii. 39, note.

(166) Turned aside others, i.e., the chiefs of the Quraish, who were turned aside by the answer of the Jews referred to in the note on the preceding verse.

(168) With truth from your Lord. A new assertion of his prophetic claim. See notes on vers. 116, 156, and 162.

(169) Exceed not the just bounds, i.e., "either by rejecting or con

R 24.

neither say of GOD any other than the truth. Verily Christ
Jesus the son of Mary is the apostle of GOD, and his Word,
which he conveyed into Mary, and a spirit proceeding from
him. Believe therefore in GOD and his apostles, and say
not, There are three Gods; forbear this; it will be better
for you.
GOD is but one GOD. Far be it from him that
he should have a son; unto him belongeth whatever is in
heaven and on earth; and GOD is a sufficient protector.

|| (170) Christ doth not proudly disdain to be a servant unto GOD; neither the angels who approach near to his presence and whoso disdaineth his service and is puffed up with pride, God will gather them all to himself on the last day. (171) Unto those who believe and do that which is right he shall give their rewards, and shall superabundantly add unto them of his liberality: but those who are disdainful and proud, he will punish with a grievous punishment; (172) and they shall not find any

temning Jesus, as the Jews do; or raising him to an equality with God, as do the Christians."-Sale, Baidhawi.

His word,. a spirit proceeding from him. See notes on chap. ii. 86, and chap. iii. 39.

Say not... three, "Namely, God, Jesus, Mary. For the Eastern writers mention a sect of Christians which held the Trinity to be composed of those three; but it is allowed that this heresy has been long since extinct (Elmacin, p. 227). The passage, however, is equally levelled against the Holy Trinity, according to the doctrine of the orthodox Christians, who, as Al Baidhawi acknowledges, believe the divine nature to consist of three persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; by the Father, understanding God's essence; by the Son, his knowledge; and by the Holy Ghost, his life."-Sale.

See also Prelim. Disc., p. 64.

The commentators Baidháwi, Jalaluddin, and Yahya agree in interpreting the three to mean "God, Jesus, and Mary," in the relation of Father, Mother, and Son. This misrepresentation of the Scripture doctrine again stamps the Qurán as a fabrication, and furnishes the evidence of its being such on the ground of its own claims. The history of the Church, as well as the Bible, proves the statement of the text, as interpreted by authoritative commentators, to be false; for even granting that some obscure Christian sect did hold such a doctrine of the Trinity (of which statement we have yet to learn the truth), yet the spirit of Muhammad's inspiration represents it as the faith of the Christians generally. In almost every case

to protect or to help them, besides GOD. (173) O men, now is an evident proof come unto you from your LORD, and we have sent down unto you manifest light. (174) They who believe in GOD and firmly adhere to him, he will lead them into mercy from him, and abundance; and he will direct them in the right way to himself. (175) They will consult thee for thy decision in certain cases; say unto them, GOD giveth you these determinations concerning the more remote degrees of kindred. If a man die without issue, and have a sister, she shall have the half of what he shall leave: and he shall be heir to her, in case she have no issue. But if there be two sisters, they shall have between them two third parts of what he shall leave; and if there be several, both brothers and sisters, a male shall have as much as the portion of two females. GOD declareth unto you these precepts, lest ye err: and GOD knoweth all things.

where the Qurán refers to the Christian faith, it is to inveigh against the idea that God has a son. See chap. ix. 31, xix. 31, xliii. 59. (173) Manifest light, i.e., the teaching of the Qurán.

(175) See notes on vers. 10 and 11.

And he shall be heir to her, i.e., where there is a brother and a sister, the sister inherits half the brother's property in case he die first without issue. On the other hand, in case the sister die first without issue, the brother inherits all her property.

CHAPTER V.

ENTITLED SURAT UL MÁIDA (THE TABLE).

Revealed at Madína.

INTRODUCTION.

ALTHOUGH, as is usual with all the long chapters of the Qurán, this chapter refers to a variety of matters of a general and miscellaneous character, e.g., rules respecting purification, laws concerning lawful and unlawful food, yet there are four points which attract the special notice of the reader. These are (1) the extended reference to the rites of the pilgrimage to Makkah; (2) the fierce hatred of the Prophet towards the Jews and his denunciations against them ; (3) the laboured effort to refute the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and the Sonship of Christ; and (4) the repeated warning given to Muslims not to make friends of either Jews or Christians. Wherefore both the historic references of this chapter as well as the animus of the revelation point to a period late in the life of Muhammad as that to which it belongs-a period when successful warfare had made the Prophet indifferent alike to Jewish hatred and Christian friendship.

The statement of ver. 4, "This day have I perfected your religion for you," &c., has led some writers to regard this chapter as the last of the chapters of the Qurán, taken in their chronological order. Muslim authorities agree that this verse and a few others at the beginning of this chapter fairly claim the last place on the list of revelations. However, excepting this short section, there is nothing in this chapter to lead us to believe it to be chronologically the last in the Qurán. Nöeldeke and Muir both agree in placing chap. ix. at the end of the chronological list of Suras, the former, however, admitting that there are some verses in this chapter which fairly claim posteriority to all others in the Qurán. He refers especially to ver. 4, which he thinks was revealed when Muhammad, with perhaps a

presentiment of death being near, could say that all his enemies had lost their courage and that his religion was completed. It is for this reason he places it last in his historico-critical observations.

The revelations of this chapter are therefore of Madína origin.

Probable Date of the Revelations.

Following Nöeldeke for the most part, the dates within which the revelations of this chapter were made are as follows:

Vers. 1-11 belong to A.H. 10. The date of ver. 12 cannot be ascertained with certainty. Vers. 13 and 14 may be placed almost anywhere between A.H. 2 and 7, the probability being that they belong nearer to the latter than to the former date. Vers. 45-55, though referred by most Muslim writers to a period prior to the massacre of the Baní Quraidha, should nevertheless be placed later, i.e., prior to the expedition against the Jews of Khaibar in A.H. 7. Vers. 56-63, according to Muslim authorities, belong to the latter part of A.H. 3 or the early part of A.H. 4.

Of vers. 64-88, the most that can be said is that they belong to a period between A.H. and 8, after many wars with the Jews, and before the final outbreak with the Christians. Vers. 89-104 belong to A.H. 4-6. The date of the remaining verses is uncertain, but may be fixed approximately at A.H. 5-8.

Principal Subjects.

Covenants are to be fulfilled

Lawful meats

Heathen pilgrims not to be molested

Islám completed—last revelation of the Qurán

Certain kinds of food, gaming, and lots forbidden

Muslims permitted to eat the food of Jews and Christians,

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VERSES

I

2

3

4

4, 5

6

7

8

9-11

12

13-15

16-18

19, 20

21

22

23-29

30-34

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