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181. This is the seventh sign, and eighth constellation, from the vernal equinox, and is situated in the Zodiac, next east of Virgo..

The sun enters this sign, at the autumnal equinox, on the 23d of September; but does not reach the constellation before the 27th of October. When the sun enters the sign Libra, the days and nights are equal all over the world, and seem to observe a kind of equilibrium, like a balance.

When, however, it is said that the vernal and autumnal equinoxes are in Aries and Libra, and the tropics in Cancer and Capricorn, it must be remembered that the signs Aries and Libra, Cancer and Capricorn, and not the constellations of these names, are meant: for the equinoxes are now in the constellations Pisces and Virgo, and the tropics in Gemini and Sagittarius; each constellation having gone forward one sign in the ecliptic.

About 22 centuries ago, the constellation Libra coincided with the sign Libra; but having advanced 30° or more in the ecliptic, it is now in the sign Scorpio, and the constellation Scorpio is in the sign Sagittarius, and so on.

While Aries is now advanced a whole sign above the equinoctial point into north declination, Libra has descended as far below it into south declination.

182. Libra contains fifty-one stars, including two of the 2d magnitude, two of the 3d, and twelve of the 4th. Its mean declination is 8° south, and its mean right ascension 226°. Its center is therefore on the meridian about the 22d of June.

It may be known by means of its four principal stars, forming a quadrilateral figure, lying northeast and southwest, and having its upper and lower corners nearly in a line running north and south. The two stars which form the N. E. side of the square, are situated about 7° apart, and distinguish the Northern Scale. The two stars which form the S. W. side of the square are situated about 6° apart, and distinguish the Southern Scale. Zubeneschamali, in the Southern Scale, about 21° E. of Spica, and 8° E. of Lambda Virginis, is a star of the 2d magnitude, and is situated very near the ecliptic, about 421⁄2° E. of the autumnal equinox. The distance from this star down to Theta Centauri is about 23°, with which, and Spica Virginis, it forms a large triangle, on the right.

Zubenelgemabi, the uppermost star in the Northern Scale, is also of the 2d magnitude, 9% above Zubeneschamali, toward the northeast, and it comes to the meridian about twenty-six minutes after it, on the 23d of June. Zubenelgemabi is the northernmost of the four bright stars in this figure, and is exactly opposite the lower one, which is 11° south of it.

Zubenhakrabi is a star of the 3d magnitude in the Northern Scale, 7° S. E. of Zubenelgemabi, and nearly opposite to Zubeneschamali, at the distance of 11° on the east. These two make the diagonal of the square east and west.

Iota is a star of the 4th magnitude, and constitutes the southernmost corner of the square. It is about 6° S. E. of Zubeneschamali, and 11° S. of Zubenelgemabi, with which it forms the other diagonal north and south.

Zebenelgubi is a star of the 3d magnitude, situated below the Southern Scale, at the

181. Order and situation of Libra? What circumstance suggesting a balance? What remarks respecting the distinction between the signs and the constellations? 182. Number of stars in Libra? Its mean declination? Right ascension? When on the meri. dian? How may it be known? Describe the four stars. Closing remarks?

distance of 6° from Iota, and marks the southern limit of the Zodiac. It is situated in a right line with, and nearly midway between Spica Virginis and Beta Scorpionis: and comes to the meridian nearly at the same moment with Nekkar, in the head of Bootes. The remaining stars in this constellation are too small to engage attention.

The scholar, in tracing out this constellation in the heavens, will perceive that Lambda and Mu, which lie in the feet of Virgo on the west, form, with Zubeneschamali and Zubenelgemabi, almost as handsome and perfect a figure, as the other two stars in the Balance do on the east.


Virgo was the goddess of justice, and Libra, the scales, which she is usually represented as holding in her left hand, are the appropriate emblem of her office.

The Libra of the Zodiac, says Maurice, in his Indian Antiquities, is perpetually seen upon all the hieroglyphics of Egypt; which is at once an argument of the great antiquity of this asterism, and of the probability of its having been originally fabricated by the astronomical sons of Misraim. In some few zodiacs, Astrea, or the virgin who holds the balance in her hand as an emblem of equal justice, is not drawn. Such are the zodiacs of Esne and Dendera. Humboldt is of opinion, that although the Romans introduced this constellation into their zodiac in the reign of Julius Cæsar, still it might have been used by the Egyptians and other nations of very remote antiquity.

It is generally supposed that the figure of the balance has been used by all nations to denote the equality of the days and nights, at the period of the sun's arriving at this sign. It has also been observed, that at this season there is a greater uniformity in the temperature of the air all over the earth's surface.

Others affirm, that the beam only of the balance was at first placed among the stars, and that the Egyptians thus honored it as their Nilometer, or instrument by which they measured the inundations of the Nile. To this custom of measuring the waters of the Nile, it is thought the prophet alludes, when he describes the Almighty as measuring the waters in the hollow of his hand.-Isa. xl. 12.

The ancient husbandmen, according to Virgil, were wont to regard this sign as indi cating the proper time for sowing their winter grain :

"But when Astræa's balance, hung on high,
Betwixt the nights and days divides the sky,
Then yoke your oxen, sow your winter grain,
Till cold December comes with driving rain."

The Greeks declare that the balance was placed among the stars to perpetuate the memory of Mochus, the inventor of weights and measures.

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Those who refer the constellations of the Zodiac to the twelve tribes of Israel ascribe the Balance to Asher.


1. a LIBRE-A wide DOUBLE STAR; R. A. 14h. 42m. 02s.; Dec. S. 15° 22′ 8′′. A 8, pale yellow; B 6, light grey. Carry a line from Arcturus to Spica; and from thence a rectangular one about 22° to the eastward.

2. B LIBRE-A loose DOUBLE STAR; R. A. 15h. 08m. 24s.; Dec. S. 8° 47′ 4′′. A 2%, pale emerald; B 12, light blue.

3. LIBRE-A fine TRIPLE STAR, between Libra and the right leg of Ophiuchus, 16° from Antares, towards Serpentis; R. A. 15h. 55m. 35s.; Dec. S. 10° 55' 6". A 4%, bright white; B 5, pale yellow; C 7, grey. Map VIII., Fig. 11.

4. A CLOSE CLUSTER, over the beam of the Scales; R. A. 15h. 10m. 26s.; Dec. N. 2° 41′ 8′′. A superb object, with a bright central blaze, and outlines in all directions. Map IX., Fig. 51. Appears nebulous through small instruments.

5. A LARGE COMPRESSED CLUSTER of minute stars; R. A. 15h. 08m. 06s.; Dec. S. 20° 26' 7". Faint and pale.

HISTORY.-Who was Virgo, &c.?

What other explanations!

Remark of Maurice? What general supposition?

TELESCOPIC OBJECTS.-Alpha? Beta? What triple star? Map? Clusters and Map?


183. There are no less than four kinds of serpents placed among the constellations. The first is the Hydra, which is situated south of the Zodiac, below Cancer, Leo and Virgo; the second is Hydrus, which is situated near the south pole; the third is Draco, which is situated about the north pole; and the fourth is the serpent called Serpens Ophiuchi, and is situated chiefly between Libra and Corona Borealis. A large part of this constellation, however, is so blended with Ophiuchus, the Serpent-Bearer, who grasps it in both hands, that the concluding description of it will be deferred until we come to that constellation.

"The Serpens Ophiuchi winds his spire
Immense: fewer by ten his figure trace;

One of the second rank; ten shun the sight;
And seven, he who bears the monster hides."

184. Those stars which lie scattered along for about 25°, in a serpentine direction between Libra and the Crown, mark the body and head of the Serpent.

About 10° directly S. of the Crown there are three stars of the 3d magnitude, which, with several smaller ones, distinguish the head.

185. Unuk, of the 2d magnitude, is the principal star in this constellation. It is situated in the heart, about 10° below those in the head, and may be known by its being in a line with, and between, two stars of the 3d magnitude the lower one, marked Epsilon, being 21°, and the upper one, marked Delta, about 51° from it. The direction of this line is N. N. W. and S. S. E Unuk may otherwise be known by means of a small star, just above it, marked Lambda.

In that part of the Serpent which lies between Corona Borealis and the Scales, about a dozen stars may be counted, of which five or six are conspicuous.

For the remainder of this constellation, the student is referred to Serpentarius.

"Vast as the starry Serpent, that on high

Tracks the clear ether, and divides the sky,

And southward winding from the Northern Wain.

Shoots to remoter spheres its glittering train."-Statius.


The Hivites, of the Old Testament, were worshipers of the Serpent, and were called Ophites. The idolatry of these Ophites was extremely ancient, and was connected with

183. How many serpents among the constellations?

Describe each. Which here

referred to? Is it fully described? 184. What stars mark the body and head?
Name the principal star. Where situated and how known?
HISTORY.-What said of the Hivites?

Scripture reference?


Tradition respecting Ophiuchus ? Supposed

Sabeism, or the worship of the host of heaven. The heresy of the Ophites, mentioned by Mosheim, in his Ecclesiastical History, originated, perhaps, in the admission into the Christian church of some remnant of the ancient and popular sect of Sabeists, who adored the celestial Serpent.

According to ancient tradition, Ophiuchus is the celebrated physician Esculapius, son of Apollo, who was instructed in the healing art by Chiron the Centaur; and the serpent, which is here placed in his hands, is understood by some to be an emblem of his sagacity and prudence; while others suppose it was designed to denote his skill in healing the bite of this reptile. Biblical critics imagine that this constellation is alluded to in the following passage of the book of Job:

"By his spirit He hath garnished the Heavens; his hand hath formed the crooked serpent." Mr. Green supposes, however, that the inspired writer here refers to Draco, because it is a more obvious constellation, being nearer the pole where the constellations were more universally noticed; and moreover, because it is a more ancient constellation than the Serpent, and the hieroglyphic by which the Egyptians usually represented the heavens.


1. a SERPENTIS (Unuk)—A star with a minute companion on the heart of the Serpent; R. A. 15h. 36m. 23s.; Dec. N. 6° 55′ 9′′. A 2%, pale yellow; B 15, fine blue. An extremely delicate object.

2. B SERPENTIS-A delicate DOUBLE STAR in the Serpent's under jaw; R. A. 15h. 38m. 48s.; Dec. N. 15° 55′ 7′′. A 8%, and B 10, both pale blue.

3. d SERPENTIS-An elegant DOUBLE STAR in the bend of the neck; R. A. 15h. 27m. 10s.; Dec. N. 11° 04' 7". A 8, bright white; B 5, bluish white. A fine object, about 5° N. W. of Unak.

4. 7 SERPENTIS-A star with a minute companion in the Serpent's body, nearly midway between 7 Ophiuchi and a Aquile; R. A. 18h. 13m. 02s.; Dec. S. 2° 56′ 0°. A 4, golden yellow; B 18, pale lilac. A delicate and difficult object.

5. V SERPENTIS-A wide DOUBLE STAR in the middle of the Serpent, 4° northeast of ni R. A. 17h. 11m. 49s.; Dec. S. 12° 40′ 7′′. A 4%, pale sea-green; B 9, lilac, with a third star in the field.

6. A delicate DOUBLE STAR; R. A. 15h. 11m. 08s.; Dec. N. 2° 22′ 6′′. A 5%. pale yellow B 10%, light grey. Look 9° southwest of a Serpentis, 24° southeast of Arcturus.



186. This beautiful constellation may be easily known by means of its six principal stars, which are so placed as to form a circular figure, very much resembling a wreath or crown. is situated directly north of the Serpent's head, between Bootes on the west, and Hercules on the east.

This asterism was known to the Hebrews by the name of Ataroth, and by this name the stars in Corona Borealis are called, in the East, to this day.

187. Alphacca, of the 2d magnitude, is the brightest and middle star in the diadem, and about 11° E. of Mirac, in Bootes. It is very readily distinguished from the others both on account of its position and superior brilliancy. Alphacca, Arcturus, and Seginus, form nearly an isosceles triangle, the vertex of which is at Arcturus.

TELESCOPIC OBJECTS.-Alpha? Beta? Delta? Eta? Nu? &c.

186. How may Corona Borealis be known? Where situated? Its Hebrew name? 187. Describe Alphacca? How distinguished? What triangle ?

188. This constellation contains twenty-one stars, of which only six or eight are conspicuous; and most of these are not larger than the 3d magnitude. Its mean declination is 30° north, and its mean right ascension 235°; its center is therefore on the meridian about the last of June, and the first of July. "And, near to Helice, effulgent rays

Beam, Ariadne, from thy starry crown:
Twenty and one her stars; but eight alone
Conspicuous; one doubtful, or to claim
The second order, or accept the third."


This beautiful little cluster of stars is said to be in commemoration of a crown presented by Bacchus to Ariadne, the daughter of Minos, second king of Crete. Theseus, king of Athens (1235 B. C.), was shut up in the celebrated labyrinth of Crete, to be devoured by the ferocious Minotaur which was confined in that place, and which usually fed upon the chosen young men and maidens exacted from the Athenians as a yearly tribute to the tyranny of Minos; but Theseus slew the monster, and being furnished with a clew of thread by Ariadne, who was passionately enamored of him, he extricated himself from the difficult windings of his confinement.

He afterward married the beautiful Ariadne according to promise, and carried her away; but when he arrived at the island of Naxos, he deserted her, notwithstanding he had received from her the most honorable evidence of attachment and endearing tenderness. Ariadne was so disconsolate upon being abandoned by Theseus, that, as some say, she hanged herself; but Plutarch says that she lived many years after, and was espoused to Bacchus, who loved her with much tenderness, and gave her a crown of seven stars which, after her death, was placed among the stars.

"Resolves, for this the dear engaging dame
Should shine forever in the rolls of fame;
And bids her crown among the stars be placed,
And with an eternal constellation graced.
The golden circlet mounts; and, as it flies,
Its diamonds twinkle in the distant skies;
There, in their pristine form, the gemmy rays
Between Alcides and the Dragon blaze."

Manilius, in the first book of his Astronomicon, thus speaks of the Crown.

"Near to Bootes the bright crown is view'd,
And shines with stars of different magnitude:
Or placed in front above the rest displays

A vigorous light, and darts surprising rays.
This shone, since Theseus first his faith betray'd,
The monument of the forsaken maid."


1. a CORONE BOREALIS (Alphacca) A bright star with a distant companion; R. A. 15h. 27m. 54s.; Dec. N. 27° 15' 2". A 2, brilliant white; B 8, pale violet.

2. Y CORONA BOREALIS-A most difficult BINARY STAR, 2° from Alphacca; R. A. 15h. 86m. 01s.; Dec. N. 26° 48' 4"; with a distant companion. A 6, flushed white; B, uncertain; C 10, pale lilac.

8. CORONE BOREALIS-A fine DOUBLE STAR, 10° north and a little easterly from Alphacca; R. A. 15h. 33m. 21s.; Dec. N. 87° 09′ 6′′. A 5, bluish white; B 6, smalt blue. A beautiful object.

4. 7 CORONE BOREALIS-A BINARY STAR, midway between the Northern Crown and the club of Bootes; R. A. 15h. 16m. 86s.; Dec. N. 80° 52′ 2′′. A north-northwest ray from a Coronæ, through ß, and half as far again, will hit it. A 6, white; B 6%, golden yellow.

188. How many stars in this constellation? Their magnitudes? Mean declination and right ascension? HISTORY.-Story respecting Theseus and Ariadne?

TELESCOPIC OBJECTS.-Alpha? Gamma? Zeta? Eta?

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