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it lies 10 due north of λ Antinoi, a 3d magnitude. star, and 18° west of Aquilæ. The brightest object of its immediate neighborhood.

7. A WIDE DOUBLE STAR about 4° west-by-south of 2 Antinoi, between the foot and Sobieski's Shield; R. A. 18h. 41m. 07s.; Dec. S. 6° 05′ 08′′. A 7, orange tint; B 9, cerulean blue. Many telescopic stars in the field.

8. A SPLENDID CLUSTER close to the southeast of the last described object; R. A. 18h. 12m. 82s.; Dec. S. 6° 27′ 02′′. It is between the left foot and Sobieski's Shield. A gorgeous object "somewhat resembling a flight of wild ducks in shape," has an 8th magnitude star in the middle, and two larger east of it; probably all three between us and the cluster. Map IX., Fig. 61.

9. A LOOSE CLUSTER between the lower wing and the leg of Antinous, and 13° southwest of Altair, on a line from Vega through & Aquilæ; R. A. 19h. 08m. 86s.; Dec. S. 1° 11' 09" A splashy group of stars from the 9th to the 12th magnitudes, on the eastern margin of the Galaxy.

10. A STELLAR NEBULA on the Eagle's back, about 5° west of Altair; R. A. 19h. 23m. 55s.; Dec. N. 8° 54′ 01′′. A minute object in the Milky-Way; and in the most powerful telescopes, far-shaped.


222. SAGITTA is a small but old constellation between the Fox and Goose on the north, and the Eagle on the south. Its two principal stars are of the 4th magnitude, and lie nearly east and west, about 4° apart. The next two largest stars are of the 5th magnitude.


1. & SAGITTE-A star with a distant companion about 8° north-northwest of Altair, on a line towards Vega; R. A. 19h. 30m. 03s.; Dec. N. 16° 06' 5". A 6, pale white; B 8, light blue.

2. SAGITTA A neat DOUBLE STAR just above the Arrow, 9° south by east from 3 Cygni, and 10° north of Altair; R. A. 19h. 41m. 58s.; Dec. N. 18° 44' 8". A 5, silvery white; B 9, blue.

3. SAGITTE-A TRIPLE STAR near the head of the Arrow, about half-way from B Cygni to a Delphini; R. A. 20h. 02m. 58s.; Dec. N. 20° 26' 6". A 7, pale topaz; B 9, grey; 08, pearly yellow.

4. A RICH COMPRESSED CLUSTER on the shaft of the arrow, 10° northeast of Altair; R. A. 19h. 46m. 36s.; Dec. N. 18° 22′ 1′′. Telescopic stars around it.


223. This is a modern constellation, situated between the Swan on the north, and the Arrow or the Dolphin and Eagle on the south. It is composed of some thirty stars, the largest of which is of the 3d magnitude.


1. A star with a distant companion on the nose of Reynard, and neck of the Goose, 8% south of ẞ Cygni ; R. A. 19h. 22m. 08s.; Dec. N. 24° 20′ 7′′.

222. Describe Sagitta-its principal stars.

TELESCOPIC OBJECTS.-Epsilon? Zeta? What triple star? Cluster? 228. Describe the Fox and Goose. Its component stars?

2. A WIDE DOUBLE STAR, 111⁄2 north of Altair, between the Fox and the Arrow, in the eastern edge of the Galaxy; R. A. 19h. 46m. 20s.; Dec. N. 19° 55′ 5′′. A and B both 7 and both white.

8. A LARGE STRAGGLING CLUSTER on the neck of the Goose, and about 3° from ẞ Cygni; R. A. 19h. 20m. 80s.; Dec. N. 24° 49' 8". Two 7th magnitude stars in the west. The cluster has the form of a Greek .

4. The celebrated DUMB-BELL NEBULA, on the Fox's breast, about 7° southeast of Cygni, and nearly half-way between it and the Dolphin; R. A. 19h. 52m. 89s.; Dec. N. 22° 17′ 1′′. (Map IX., Fig. 62.) This magnificent and singular object is in a crowded vicinity, where field after field is very rich.




224. THIS beautiful little cluster of stars is situated 13° or 14° N. E. of the Eagle. It consists of eighteen stars, including four of the 3d magnitude, but none larger. It is easily distinguished from all others, by means of the four principal stars in the head, which are so arranged as to form the figure of a diamond, pointing N. E. and S. W. To many, this cluster is known by the name of Job's Coffin; but from whom, or from what fancy, it first obtained this appellation, is not known.

225. There is another star of the 3d magnitude, situated in the body of the Dolphin, about 3° S. W. of the Diamond, and marked Epsilon. The other four are marked Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta. Between these are several smaller stars, too small to be seen in presence of the moon.

The mean declination of the Dolphin is about 15° N. It comes to the meridian the same moment with Deneb Cygni, and about 50 minutes after Altair, on the 16th of September.

"Thee I behold, majestic Cygnus,

On the marge dancing of the heavenly sea,
Arion's friend; eighteen thy stars appear-
One telescopic."


TELESCOPIC OBJECTS.-What double stars? Cluster? Nebula? Point out on the map. 224. Constellations in this chapter? Delphinus? Number and size of stars? distinguished? What other name has this constellation? 225. Where are Epsilon, Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta? Mean declination, &c.


The Dolphin, according to some mythologists, was made a constellation by Neptune Decause one of these beautiful fishes had persuaded the goddess Amphitrite, who had made a vow of perpetual celibacy, to become the wife of that deity; but others maintain, that it is the dolphin which preserved the famous lyric poet and musician Arion, who was a native of Lesbos, an island in the Archipelago.

He went to Italy with Periander, tyrant of Corinth, where he obtained immense riches by his profession. Wishing to revisit his native country, the sailors of the ship in which he embarked resolved to murder him, and get possession of his wealth. Seeing them immovable in their resolution, Arion begged permission to play a tune upon his lute before he should be put to death. The melody of the instrument attracted a number of dolphins around the ship; he immediately precipitated himself into the sea; when one of them, it is asserted, carried him safe on his back to Tænarus, a promontory of Laconia, in Peloponnesus; when he hastened to the court of Periander, who ordered all the sailors to be crucified at their return.

"But (past belief), a dolphin's arched back
Preserved Arion from his destined wrack;
Secure he sits, and with harmonious strains
Requites his bearer for his friendly pains."

When the famous poet Hesiod was murdered in Naupactum, a city of Etolia, in Greece, and his body thrown into the sea, some dolphins, it is said, brought back the floating corpse to the shore, which was immediately recognized by his friends; and the assassins being afterwards discovered by the dogs of the departed bard, were put to death by immersion in the same sea.

Taras, said by some to have been the founder of Tarentum, now Tarento, in the south of Italy, was saved from shipwreck by a dolphin; and the inhabitants of that city preserved the memory of this extraordinary event on their coin.

The natural shape of the dolphin, however, is not incurvated, so that one might ride upon its back, as the poets imagined, but almost straight. When it is first taken from the water, it exhibits a variety of exquisitely beautiful but evanescent tints of color, that pass in succession over its body until it dies. They are an extremely swift-swimming fish, and are capable of living a long time out of water; in fact, they seem to delight to gambol, and leap out of their native element.

"Upon the swelling waves the dolphins show
Their bending backs; then swiftly darting go,
And in a thousand wreaths their bodies show."


1. a DELPHINI-A bright star with a distant telescopic companion; R. A. 20h. 32m. 128.; Dec. N. 15° 21′ 01′′. A 8%, pale white; B 13, blue.

2. 3 DELPHINI-A delicate TRIPLE STAR on the Dolphin's body, 1° south-by-west of a, in a line with B Cygni and y Lyræ; R. A. 20h. 80m. 08s.; Dec. N. 14° 02′ 06′′. A 4, greenish tinge; B 15, and C 12, both disky.

8. Y DELPHINI-A beautiful DOUBLE STAR in the head, 2° east of a; R. A. 20h. 39m. 155.; Dec. N. 15° 88′ 02′′. A 4, yellow; B 7, light emerald, with a third star about 2′′ distant.

4. A delicate QUADRUPLE STAR, near & in the tail; R. A. 20h. 28m. 85s.; Dec. N. 10° 43' 06". A 7%, and B 8, both white; C 16, blue; D 9, yellowish; several other small stars in the field. Map VIII., Fig. 17.

5. A SMALL BRIGHT CLUSTER, in the Dolphin's tail, 3° south of &; R. A. 20h. 26m. 21s.; Dec. N. 6° 58' 02". Just east of a 9th magnitude star-a coarse telescopic pair at a distance, and several minute stars in the field.

6. A small Planetary nebuLA, betwen the pectoral fin and the arrow head, 6° northnorthwest of a, and exactly on a line towards Vega Lyræ; R. A. 20h. 15m. 15s.; Dec. N. 19° 85, 06". It is in a coarse cluster, in the center of which are four epicuous stars.

HISTORY.-ACCounts of the origin of Delphinus?

Of the natural shape, &c.?

TELESCOPIC OBJECTS.-Alpha? Beta? Gamma? on the map. What cluster? Nebula?

What said of Hesiod? Of Taras?

What quadruple star? Point out



226. This remarkable constellation is situated in the MilkyWay, directly E. of Lyra, and nearly on the same meridian with the Dolphin. It is represented on outspread wings, flying down the Milky-Way, toward the southwest.

The principal stars which mark the wings, the body and the bill of Cygnus, are so arranged as to form a large and regular Cross; the upright piece lying along the Milky-Way from N. E. to S. W., while the cross piece, representing the wings, crosses the other at right angles, from S. E. to N. W.

227. Arided or Deneb Cygni, in the body of the Swan, is a star of the second magnitude, 24° E. N. E. of Lyra, and 30° directly N. of the Dolphin. It is the most brilliant star in the constellation. It is situated at the upper end of the cross, and comes to the meridian at 9 o'clock on the 16th of September.

Sad'r is a star of the 8d magnitude, 6° S. W. of Deneb, situated exactly in the cross, or where the upright piece intersects the cross piece, and is about 20° E. of Lyra.

Delta, the principal star in the west wing, or arm of the cross, is situated N. W. of Sad'r, at the distance of little more than 8°, and is of the 8d magnitude. Beyond Delta, toward the extremity of the wing, are two smaller stars about 5° apart, and inclining a little obliquely to the north; the last of which reaches nearly to the first coil of Draco. These stars mark the west wing; the east wing may be traced by means of stars very similarly situated.

Gienah is a star of the 3d magnitude, in the east wing, just as far east of Sad'r in the center of the cross, as Delta is west of it. This row of three equal stars, Delta, Sad'r and Gienah, form the bar of the cross, and are equi-distant from each other, being about 8° apart. Beyond Gienah on the east, at the distance of 6° or 7°, there are two other stars of the 3d magnitude; the last of which marks the extremity of the eastern wing. The stars in the neck are all too small to be noticed. There is one, however, in the beak of the Swan, at the foot of the cross, called Albireo, which is of the 3d magnitude, and can be seen very plainly. It is about 16° S. W. of Sad'r, and about the same distance S. E. of Lyra, with which it makes, nearly a right angle.

"In the small space between Sad'r and Albireo," says Dr. Herschel, "the stars in the Milky-Way seem to be clustering into two separate divisions; each division containing more than one hundred and sixty-five thousand stars."

Albireo bears northerly from Altair, about 20°. Immediately south and southeast of Albireo, may be seen the Fox and GOOSE; and about midway between Albireo and Altair, there may be traced a line of four or five minute stars, called the ARROW; the head of which is on the S. W., and can be distinguished by means of two stars situated close together.

228. According to the British catalogue, this constellation contains eighty-one stars, including one of the 1st or 2d magnitude, six of the 3d, and twelve of the 4th. The author of the following beautiful lines says there are one hundred and seven.

"Thee, silver Swan, who, silent, can o'erpass?

A hundred with seven radiant stars compose
Thy graceful form: amid the lucid stream

226. Situation of Cygnus? How represented? Figure made by its principal stars? Its position? 227. Which is the brightest of its stars? Describe Sad'r, Delta, Gienah, Albireo. Remark of Dr. Herschel? 228. Number of stars in Cygnus? Variable stars? What are they supposed to indicate?

Of the fair Milky-Way distinguished: one
Adorns the second order, where she cuts
The waves that follow in her utmost track;
This never hides its fire throughout the night,
And of the rest, the more conspicuous mark

Her snowy pinions and refulgent neck."-Eudosia, b. iv.

Astronomers have discovered three variable stars in the Swan. Chi, situated in the neck, between Beta and Sad'r, was first observed to vary its brightness in 1686. Its periodical changes of light are now ascertained to be completed in 405 days. Sad'r is also changeable. Its greatest luster is somewhat less than that of a star of the 8d magnitude, and it gradually diminishes till it reaches that of the 6th. Its changes are far from being regular, and, from present observations, they do not seem to recur till after a period of ten years or more.

A third variable star was discovered in the head on the 20th of June, 1670, by Anthelme. It appeared then to be of the 3d magnitude, but was so far diminished in the following October, as to be scarcely visible. In the beginning of April, 1671, it was again seen, and was rather brighter than at first. After several changes, it disappeared in March, 1672, and has not been observed since. These remarkable facts seem to indicate, that there is a brilliant planetary system in this constellation, which, in some of its revolutions, becomes visible to us.


Mythologists give various accounts of the origin of this constellation. Some suppose it is Orpheus, the celebrated musician, who, on being murdered by the cruel priestess of Bacchus, was changed into a Swan, and placed near his Harp in the heavens. Others suppose it is the swan into which Jupiter transformed himself when he deceived Leda, wife of Tyndarus, king of Sparta. Some affirm that it was Cycnus, a son of Neptune, who was so completely invulnerable that neither the javelins nor arrows, nor even the blows of Achilles, in furious combat, could make any impression.

"Headlong he leaps from off his lofty car,
And in close fight on foot renews the war ;-
But on his flesh nor wound nor blood is seen,
The sword itself is blunted on the skin."

But when Achilles saw that his darts and blows had no effect on him, he immediately threw him on the ground and smothered him. While he was attempting to despoil him of his armor, he was suddenly changed into a swan.

"With eager haste he went to strip the dead;
The vanished body from his arms was fled.
His sea-god sire, to immortalize his fame,

Had turned it to a bird that bears his name."

According to Ovid, this constellation took its name from Cycnus, a relative of Phaeton, who deeply lamented the untimely fate of that youth, and the melancholy end of his sisters, who, standing around his tomb, wept themselves into poplars.

"Cycnus beheld the nymphs transformed, allied

To their dead brother on the mortal side,
In friendship and affection nearer bound;
He left the cities, and the realms he owned,

Through pathless fields, and lonely shores to range;
And woods made thicker by the sisters' change:
While here, within the dismal gloom alone,
The melancholy monarch made his moan;
His voice was lessened as he tried to speak,
And issued through a long-extended neck:
His hair transforms to down, his fingers meet
In skinny films, and shape his oary feet;
From both his sides the wings and feathers break:
And from his mouth proceeds a blunted beak;
All Cycnus now into a swan was turned."-Ovid's Met. b. ii.

HISTORY.-Various accounts? Story of Cycnus and Achilles? gil's remarks respecting the Swan?

Ovid's account? Vir

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