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of this "ageing," the flavor and "bouquet" of the whiskey are greatly improved. Agitation hastens the ageing.

This kind of whiskey is not a poison; and some years ago it sold in the American market for a few cents a gallon.

Even under the Internal Revenue laws of the '60s, '70s and early '80s, high-grade, honest whiskey was abundant in America, together with much of a very inferior quality.

When the High License craze spread over the country in the '80s, the saloon-keepers saw that they must make more profits from a gallon of whiskey. They demanded a cheap grade. Observation shows that there is not one man in fifty who drinks whiskey who can determine by the taste a high-grade whiskey from an inferior grade. Most of the saloon drinkers of this generation seem to judge the quality of whiskey from the "kick" there is in it, the greater the "kick" the better the quality, when in fact, the reverse is true.

In 1881, the year of the beginning of the High License system in the United States, the Kentucky distillers produced 32,000,000 gallons of "fine," high-grade whiskey and in the following year produced an equal amount. By 1883 they found that the demand for fine whiskey had greatly diminished, and their production in that year was only 6,000,000 gallons and in 1884, 7,000,000 gallons. Being required, after it had aged three years, to pay the Internal Revenue tax of 90 cents a gallon, they endeavored to sell it but found no market for the greater part of it in the United States. Many millions of gallons were shipped to foreign countries with the hope that a market could be created there. This met with little success, and, after a time the greater part of the exported goods were shipped back to this country.

With a view of relieving themselves of this embarrassment, "distillers representing 90 per cent of the producing capacity of Kentucky held a meeting at Louisville on June 9, 1887, and agreed that "not a gallon should be manufactured by the establishments represented during the year beginning July 1, 1887"; and the members of the organization abided by their agreement. During that year only about 8,000,000 gallons of high-grade whiskey was distilled in the entire United States, out of a total production, in that year, of about 80,000,000 gallons of distilled spirits.

Just thirty days prior to the Louisville meeting, the Northern distillers met in Chicago and organized The Distillers and Cattle Feeders' Trust, which, says the Cyclopedia of Temperance and Prohibition, "within a single year's time had become powerful enough to control

all but 10 or 15 per cent of all the spirits (apart from bourbon and rye whiskey) produced in the country-not omitting the South."

The year 1887 was the beginning of the organization of the "whiskey trust" in the United States. It was organized, as has been said, "To prevent overproduction and bring about intelligent cooperaton." This apparent overproduction of high-grade whiskey produced by the Kentucky distillers in the years 1881 to 1886, inclusive, might have been sold in foreign countries had not Germany, in 1882, passed an act granting a bounty on all spirits exported by German distillers. The saloons, controling by virtue of the High License system nearly the entire retail trade in alcoholic liquors, continued to demand, with rare exceptions, cheap liquors. In order to supply this demand the distillers produced the greatest quantity possible from a bushel of grain or other material and with the least amount of labor and time. Instead of distilling with care and skill to eliminate from the distillate the heavy alcohols (fusel oil) intense heat is applied and everything alcoholic was carried over as well as the grain alcohol. The heavy alcohols are as efficient in making proof whiskey (one-half alcohol and one-half water) as the grain alcohol. The word "proof" refers exclusively to strength, implying nothing whatever as to purity.

The greatest quantity of honest, proof whiskey that can be produced from a bushel of grain is from two to two and a half gallons. The Commissioner of Internal Revenue reported that for the fiscal year 1916 the average yield per bushel of grain used for the production of spirits was a fraction more than 4.63 gallons of spirits and for the fiscal year 1917 a fraction more than 4.62 gallons of spirits. There can not be produced from a bushel of grain commonly used in distilling enough ethyl alcohol to make three gallons of spirits. A bushel of grain does not contain that amount, and yet the average production in the United States from a bushel of grain is nearly four and two-thirds gallons, and much of it is five and more gallons. The excess above two or two and one-half gallons is half fusel oil and half water. Formerly a gallon and a half per bushel was the limit for honest whiskey.

The result has been that for more than a quarter of a century, and to this day, the country has been flooded with a most infamous poison, "Kill Devil," as it formerly was called, and in modern years designated "rot-gut," a mixture absolutely unfit to enter the stomach of man or beast.

It has even been said that sometimes a large part of the grain alcohol has been carefully distilled from the wort and saved for the

purpose of making high-grade whiskey and the remaining alcohols distilled for low-grade, cheap whiskey.

The demand for cheap whiskey by the saloons and most of the druggists-largely through ignorance of what they are dispensing— has been so intense, and substantially forced upon them by law, that a great portion of it is not subjected to the ageing process, but is "low wines" thrown upon the market almost as soon as made for immediate consumption.

One of the biggest humbugs that still has hold of scores of thousands of Americans is the advertisement of whiskey as "Bonded" or "Bottled in Bond." All whiskey upon which taxes are paid, that is to say, all whiskey manufactured and sold in the United States, except "moonshine" whiskey, is "bonded" whiskey. The owner gives bond to the government to secure the payment of the tax within a specified time, the building or cellar where the whiskey is stored, often owned by the distiller, is termed a "bonded warehouse," and the goods therein are said to be "in bond," where they can be kept a specified time without paying the tax and this period is known as the "bonded period." Before that period expires the tax must be paid. The tax may be paid and the spirits removed any day before the expiration of the "bonded period;" and, as a matter of fact, but comparatively little of it, during the last thirty years has remained "in bond" very long. Storage cost something and distillers long since learned that they can get the money for most of their products without waiting a number of years for it.

The government guarantees nothing in regard to it except by the stamp that the tax has been paid and the "proof" of the goods, but that has nothing to do with the quality. "Moonshine" whiskey may be as good or very much better than "bonded whiskey," or worse, depending upon how it is manufactured and aged.

There is still, however, some honest, high-grade whiskey in the country; but it generally finds its way into the cellars and pantrys of the rich and sometimes it passes over the bar of a saloon; but this latter phenomenon is of very rare occurrence. If a druggist in the United States has kept it in his stock, within the last quarter of a century, I have not found him.

What I have said about whiskey applies with equal force to brandy and other spirits. The greater part of the so-called brandy retailed in the United States is made from poor whiskey, colored and flavored to give it the approximate appearance and flavor of brandy.

The vile liquors upon the market during the last thirty years not only make men drunk; they make men sick; they make them crazy, and often make them die.

These poisonous beverages and drugs have been the cause, more than any other, of millions of people setting themselves against the manufacture of and traffic in all kinds of alcoholic beverages and demanding that the entire business be exterminated,



The earliest Prohibition law, in the sense it is used today, was an edict of Wu Wang, Emperor of China, about three thousand years ago, who having appointed his brother, Fung, to rule over the region around the former capitol, issued an order to Fung as follows:

"If you are told that there are companies who drink together, do not fail to apprehend them all and send them to Chow, where I may put them to death. As to the ministers and officers of Yin, who have been led to it and been addicted to drink, it is not necessary to put them to death; let them be taught for a time. If they keep my lessons I will give them bright distinction. If you disregard my lessons, then I, the one man, will show you no pity. As you can not cleanse your way, you shall be classed with those who are to be put to death. The king says, O Fung, give constant heed to my admonitions. If you do not manage right your offices, the people will continue lost in drink."

The punishment for violating the edict was rather strenuous, but when it is recalled that it was well understood that Wu Wang, the one man, will show you no pity," it is evident the edict was quite effective.

Different restrictive measures were employed from time to time, one in B. C. 98, provided that liquor could be made and sold only by the government.

But Prohibition was the most favored method of the rulers of the "heathen" Chinese. In A. D. 459, an emperor of the Northern Wei dynasty ordered that all the manufacturers, vendors and drinkers of liquor should be beheaded. In A. D. 781 an emperor of the T'ang dynasty somewhat changed the form of the prohibition law by dividing liquor-shops into three grades, levying a tax on each according to size, and then strictly forbidding all persons, officers and people to buy or drink-a combination of special tax and absolute prohibition. The law of 1160 prescribed that all officials who drank should be beheaded, and in 1279 the emperor proclaimed that all liquor-makers should be banished and enslaved.

With a powerful centralized government, these laws were very effective. In the eighth century the opium poppy was brought to


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