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the caverns of France, and the province of Liege, which are described as being of the same antiquity with the bones of hyenas and other extinct quadrupeds that accompany them." The author has seen. at Liege a very extensive collection of fossil bones. made by M. Schmerling in the caverns of that neighborhood, and has visited some of the places where they were found. Many of these bones appear to have been brought together, like those in the cave of Kirkdale, by the agency of hyenas, and have evidently been gnawed by those animals. "Mr. Schmerling expresses his opinion that these bones are coeval with those of the quadrupeds of extinct species found with them." Here, then, not only are the facts admitted which overturn the whole theory, but the highest geological authorities give their opinion that these extinct animals were coexistent with man; and even Mr. Buckland admits that the bones of extinct species were gnawed by hyenas, which looks very like an admission of coexistence; if not, then the hyenas existed first! But hyenas and men belong to this present world, therefore so do these extinct animals.

The third class of facts is, that remains have been discovered of extinct animals, accompanied by those of existing species. The remains of sivatherium were accompanied by those of the elephant, mastodon, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, several ruminantia, etc. (Pp. 75, 76): "Even the eggs of aquatic birds have been preserved in the lacustrian formations of

Cournon, in Auvergne. In the same eocene formation with these eggs there were also the remains of two species of anoplotherium, a lophidodon, an anthracotherium, a hippopotamus, a ruminating animal, a dog, a marten, a lagomys, a rat, a cat, one or two tortoises, a crocodile, a serpent or lizard, and three or four species of birds" (p. 74). Now, if because "the most ancient marine animals occur in the same division of the lowest transition strata with the earliest remains of vegetables, the evidence of organic remains, so far as it goes, shows the origin of plants and animals to have been contemporaneous" (p. 24), then, for the same reason, these extinct species of animals are contemporaneous with the dog, the marten, the rat, and the lizard. But these belong to the system which now is, therefore so also do those unknown animals.

The fourth class of facts which overthrow the geological argument, and confirm the doctrine of the Bible, is as follows: "It is stated that there is a wider difference between the living genera of the order pachydermata than between those of any other order of mammalia, and that many intervals in the series of these animals have been filled up by extinct genera and species discovered in strata of the tertiary series. The sivatherium forms an important addition to the extinct genera of this intermediate and connecting character" (p. 76). "The second, or miocene system of tertiary deposits, contains an admixture of extinct genera of limestone

mammalia of the first or eocene series, with the earliest forms of genera which exist at the present time. This admixture was first noticed by M. Desnoyers in the marine formation of the faluns of Lorraine, where the remains of paleotherium, anthracotherium, and lophidodon, which formed the prevailing genera in the eocene, are found mixed with the bones of the tapir, mastodon, rhinoceros, horse, ox, bear, fox" (p. 78). "The study of these remains presents to the geologist a large amount of extinct species and genera, bearing important relatians to existing forms of animals and vegetables, and often supplying links that had hitherto appeared deficient in the great chain whereby all animated beings are held together in a series of near and gradual connections" (pp. 94, 95). The unity of design which these discoveries indicate proves that the whole chain was made at the same period, as it would be absurd to forge intermediate links and. then throw them away before those which preceded and followed them were made. On that supposition there never was, and never can be, any connected chain of being. If links are wanting at either end, still there may be a connected chain; but if they be wanting in the middle the chain is broken, its unity is gone. But, "since every individual in such a close and connected series is thus shown to be an integral part of one grand original design," it is clear that as the known animals belong to our present system, and the unknown belong to

them, they also belong to the same system with


Thus we have seen from the admixture of human bones, and those of existing animals in the same strata, with the remains of animals that were supposed to belong to other worlds, and from the fact that these unknown animals supply links that were wanting in existing species, it is proved that man and all the other animals, known and unknown, belong to the same connected chain of concreated. being. This has been shown to be the opinion of M. Schmerling and other geologists.


"Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear."-HEB. xi., 3.

HIS book of nature, which some men would


make out to be so much plainer than revelation direct from the true God, does not convey the same information to all who study it. The opinion respecting the long days of the Mosaic creation has been suggested, "both by learned theologians and by geologists, and on grounds independent of one another" (p. 22). Now, as this scheme dispenses with the world or worlds unnumbered of Mr. Buckland's theory, these geologists could not have seen what he saw, in their common science. They, therefore, neutralize each other and prove that if we give up the sure testimony of the Divine word, we must be tossed upon the shoreless ocean of skepticism, without chart or compass, at the mercy of every wave.

Dr. Chalmers has been triumphantly referred to as a witness for the scheme of Mr. Buckland. But while he says some things very unwisely on the question of interpretation, he would adopt that interpretation only hypothetically, on the supposi

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