Preliminary Chemical Engineering Plant Design

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Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 30, 1989 - Science - 572 pages
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This reference covers both conventional and advanced methods for automatically controlling dynamic industrial processes.
 

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Contents

INTRODUCTION TO PROCESS AND PLANT DESIGN
1
Research
2
Other Sources of Innovation
4
Process Engineering
5
Professional Responsibilities
7
Competing Processes
8
Different Types of Preliminary Plant Designs
9
How to Start a Process Design
12
Cost Indices
263
How Capacity Affects Costs
265
Process Equipment Costs
270
Factored Cost Estimate Lang Estimate
271
Improvements on the Factored Estimate
274
Module Cost Estimation
283
Equipment Estimate
285
Unit Operations Estimate
291

The Process of Preliminary Plant Design
13
Comparison with Alternatives
15
Completing the Project
17
Time Is Important
18
Units
19
SITE SELECTION
21
Major Site Location Factors
23
Other Site Location Factors
31
Locating the Plant Outside the United States
47
Size Selection
48
THE SCOPE
61
The Product
64
Quality
68
Raw Material Storage
69
Product Storage
71
The Process
72
Waste Disposal Utilities Shipping and Laboratory Requirements
73
Completion Date
74
Scope Summary
77
PROCESS DESIGN AND SAFETY
80
Separations
82
Unit Radio Material Balance
86
Detailed Flow Sheet
87
Safety
91
Process Design
101
Change of Scope
107
EQUIPMENT LIST
110
Sizing of Equipment
111
Planning for Future Expansions
115
Materials of Construction
117
Laboratory Equipment
118
Major Equipment Required
122
Change of Scope
133
LAYOUT
147
Expansion and Improvement of Existing Facilities
157
Layout and Warehouse Requirements
158
PROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION
163
What Should Be Controlled
164
Manual or Automatic Control
166
Controllers
167
Final Control Element
168
Averaging versus Set Point Control
169
Material Balance Control
170
Tempered Heat Transfer
171
Cascade Control
172
Feedforward Control
173
Blending
174
ENERGY AND UTILITY BALANCES AND PERSONNEL NEEDS
182
Conservation of Energy
183
Minimum Utility Requirements for Flow Systems
184
Pinch Point
190
Energy Transfer Networks
196
Sources of Energy Other than Process Streams
203
Sources of Cooking Other than Process Streams
205
Sizing Energy Equipment
210
Planning for Expansion
223
Lightning
225
Ventilation Space Heating and Cooking and Personal Water Requirements
226
Utility Requirements
228
Personnel Requirements
229
Rules of Thumb
230
Energy Balance and Utility Assessment
232
Change of Scope
249
COST ESTIMATION
262
Detailed Cost Estimate
297
ECONOMICSPART I CASH FLOW
317
Cost of Producing a Chemical
318
Capital Costs
321
Depreciation
322
Amortization
330
Depletion Allowance
331
Special Tax Rules
332
Tax Reform Act of 1986
333
Elementary Profitability Measures
340
Expected Return on Investment
349
ECONOMICSPART II DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW METHODS
359
Compound Interest
360
Two Special Cases of Compound Interest
365
Present Value
371
A Good Profitability Measure
372
Another Good Profitability Measure
377
Calculated Selling Price
382
Proper Interest Rates
384
Average Expected Income
389
Inflation
390
Cost per Unit of Production
393
Simplified Equations
397
Use of the Simplified Equations
404
Determining Whether to Proceed with a Project
406
Computers and Economics
407
The Net Present Value and Rate of Return
409
DETAILED ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION AND STARTUP
417
Detailed Engineering
418
Construction
427
Startup
429
PLANNING TOOLS CPM AND PERT
434
CPM
435
Personnel and Equipment Leveling
440
Cost and Schedule Control
441
Time for Completing Activity
442
Computers
443
OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES
450
Single Variable Optimizations
451
Endgame
465
Optimizing Optimizations
466
DIGITAL COMPUTERS AND PROCESS ENGINEERING
470
Spreadsheet and Languages
471
Uses for Computers
472
Integrating Systems
476
Program Sources
477
Evaluation of Computer Programs
478
POLLUTION AND ITS ABATEMENT
481
What Is Pollution? When Is It Bad?
482
Determining Pollution Standards
483
How to Determine if Harmful Substances Are Being Emitted
485
US Government Regulations
487
Some Examples of Poor Waste Disposal
489
Meeting Pollution Standards
490
Design of PollutionAbatement Systems
492
Air Pollution Abatement Systems
494
Water Pollution Abatement Methods
501
ConcentratedLiquid and SolidWaste Treatment Procedures
516
Conversion Factors Units and Useful Relationships
525
Cost Data for Process Equipment Offsite Facilities Site Development and Structures
528
Physical Properties and Constants of Pure Vinyl Chloride
552
Bibliography
556
Index
559
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