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1. Long Monophthongs, in which each has the same sound from its commencement to its close;

2. Diphthongs, or Double Vowels, formed, as the name indicates, by the combination of two monophthongs;

3. Short vocals, differing from the monophthongs only in duration.

The sub-vocals are divided into,

1. Correlatives, because each terminates with a light sound of its cognate aspirate;

2. Nasals, so called from the sound being made resonant in the nose;

3. Liquids, because of their flowing sound, are specially dependent upon the tongue, and are the most vocal of the consonants; and,

4. Coalescents, so designated from the perfect manner of their combining with the vowels which they always precede.

The Aspirates are naturally brought under the two significant classes of,

1. Explodents, which are made by a percussive action of the breath; and,

2. Continuants, from their having the quality of continuance or prolongation.

The vocals are formative, the sub-vocals and aspirates articulative elements. The formation of the different vocals depends chiefly upon the size and shape of the tube through which the tone passes.

Thus, the changes in the mouth parts from e to ah, and ah to oo, give, successively, the long monophthongs in the order found in the table of Elementary Sounds.

The sub-vocals and aspirates are made by different junctures of the organs of articulation which obstruct or modify the tone and breath.

The following arrangement of the elements will be found the most convenient for practice, whether the vocals be given singly, or in combination with the subvocals and the aspirates:

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earth, earn, were, fern, herd.

at, rap, cab, lad, back.

ask, pass, fast, dance, grass.
"odd, job, yonder, rock, cross.
up, rough, sum, muff, hut.
hoop, wolf, shook, hood, foot.

SUB-VOCALS.

Correlatives.

20. b,

as in barb, curb, bulb, web, sob.

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28. m,

29. n,

30. ng, Liquids.31. 1,

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deed, dude, made, goad, bade.
gag, rug, lag, give, gage.
judge, jet, jam, cage, siege.
valve, vim, vale, live, wave.

thither, thine, breathe, scythe.
zone, zigzag, whizz, maze, size.
azure, treasure, leisure, vision, usual.

as in maim, me, come, room, home.
nine, now, never, lane, on.
ring, bang, ding-dong, tongue.

32. r (rough), "

as in lull, shall, lily, toll, bell, run, roll, drum, trill, roar. 33. r (smooth)," war, car, clear, fair, were.

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44. h,

as in hence, hie, ho, howl, here.

45. wh (hw)," which, why, when, where.

The Diphthongs are each formed by the union of a short and long monophthong element as follows:

8. (i), by the union of 16 and 1.

9. (oi),

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It will be noticed that the first element in each combination is abrupt and short, and that the last is long and obscure.

COMBINATIONS OF THE ELEMENTS.

In the practice of Tables II. and IV., following,— 1. Prolong the long monophthongs and the diphthong vocals in the combinations, in a full, smooth, and musical voice,-first in the "monotone" and then in the "swell," and each in three degrees of pitch—the middle, high, and low. Practice first down the columns

and then across.

The prolongation of the vowel in the monotone may be indicated thus: Be-e-e-e-e, ba-a-a-a-a, etc.; and in the swell thus:

Be—E—e, ba—A—a, etc.

The short vocal combinations must be given in the speaking voice, with a clear and percussive action on the vocal elements.

2. Give the same combinations of the long vocals with the sub-vocals in the speaking voice in a full, resonant, and affirmative tone-running the voice down to the lowest note of its compass. Pronounce the syllables in a free and natural manner, such as would

be used in an earnest but dignified reply to an unwelcome question.

3. Then give the syllables alternately in the rising and falling slides, as in asking and answering a question, in a very earnest manner, letting the voice slide from nearly the lowest to the highest pitch of its compass in the question, and from nearly the highest to the lowest in the answer. In order to be sure of the right inflection, it may be necessary for some to give the syllables first in connection with such words as "did you say" and "no, I said," thus: Did you say BE? No, I said BA.

After sufficient practice, drop the "Did you say," and "Yes, I said," giving the syllables above in the same manner as when using the words.

The exercise may be varied by giving both inflections continuously on the same syllable.

4. An excellent practice involving many of the elements of vocal expression, such as pitch, force, stress, climax, transition, inflection, etc., is the following:

Commence on a low pitch and in subdued force, and give each syllable with the falling slide, increasing the pitch and force to "boo," and hold this on the slide into a low pitch; then, after a marked pause, give the last four combinations in the monotone, in long quantity, in a lower pitch and on the descending scale, making the cadence-slide on the syllable "bu," thus:

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