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The p, t, and k, more than any of the other elements, are the vehicles of contempt and hate. When given with great force and precision in certain words that frequently occur in impassioned utterance, they become a mighty power in expression. The following sentences, given with energy, and with the proper emotions, may serve as illustrations, and also be used as examples for practice.

I. BACK to thy punishment, false fugitive!

2. Go from my sight! I HATE and DESPISE thee! 3. Do not hate, do not despise! But pity, O PITY me! 15. The following makes a good blackboard exercise for a class. The vocals are arranged in their phonetic order, as found in the Chart of Elementary Sounds, Table I.

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Commence with "," pass to "a," and so on down, and around to the starting-point.

Practice slowly at first, then with greater rapidity, but with the same degree of accuracy and distinctness on each element.

The long vowels should be practiced first, then the corresponding short vowels in the same order. Since "" (as in fern) has no corresponding long vocal, it is omitted from the diagram below.

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Proper attention should be given to the position of the mouth and lips in each of the vowel elements. As a practice, it will be well to exaggerate the oral openings and positions of the lips for each of the vowels.

In ẽ, the corners of the mouth should be drawn well back, and the teeth separated about half an inch.

In a, retain the same position of the lips, and separate the teeth to about three-quarters of an inch.

In â, the same as in the preceding, except a very slight increase in the separation of the teeth.

In ä, the mouth is thrown wide open, and the lips drawn well back.

In a, the same, with the lips thrown forward.

In ō, the lips are thrown further forward, and the aperture made smaller.

In o, the lips are still further protruded, and the labial opening made smaller than in ō.

The mouth and lips are about the same in the short vocals as in the corresponding long vocals.

There are changes less easily described that take place within the oral cavity, which have a greater or less influence in the formation of the elements, but since their consideration hardly comes within the

province of a text-book, the attempt at an explanation of these changes is properly omitted.

A practical knowledge of the different qualities of tone and the skill of modulating the voice so as to meet the varied requirements in the expression of thought and feeling, is an art that cannot be successfully imparted by means of type and cut alone. In these particulars, the text-book must be supplemented by the voice of the teacher to insure the best results. However, the student will find great profit in the faithful practice of the foregoing exercises, which comprise a portion of the system of voice culture used by the author-a system containing the best results of a long experience and careful study.

ARTICULATION.

Raftered by firm-laid consonants, windowed by opening vowels,
Thou securely art built, free to the sun and the air.

[blocks in formation]

Not by corruption rotted, nor slowly by ages degraded,

Have the sharp consonants gone crumbling away from our words. Virgin and clear is their edge, like granite blocks chiseled by Egypt; Just as when Shakespeare and Milton laid them in glorious verse. -W. W. Story.

ARTICULATION includes exercises upon the Elementary Sounds, separately or in combination, and embraces analysis, syllabication, accent, and pronunciation.

A good articulation consists in giving to each element its due amount of sound, so that the syllables and words will "drop from the lips like newly-made coin from the mint, accurately impressed, perfectly finished, correct in value and of the proper weight." The exercises under this department of elocution are especially intended for the development and culture of the organs of articulation. There is no better or surer way for improving the articulation, than that of exercising the voice and articulatory organs on the elements of speech singly and in their easy and difficult combinations.

Next to a good voice, a distinct and correct enunciation is the essential qualification in a reader or speaker. No person, however eloquent, can be fully appreciated unless he is distinctly heard and well understood.

Although the exercises in articulation may seem tedious, no student of elocution can afford to slight them. Properly and persistently practiced, they will not only correct faults, and even impediments, in speech, but will make a good articulation better, and a better excellent. Exercises upon the elements of the language, in analysis, in the formation of syllables, and in pronunciation, may be called the "dead-work" of elocution, but it is just as necessary to be done as the dead-work in mining, in order to reach the golden ore-vein of success that lies beneath. No other department of elocution so fully verifies the oft-quoted proverb, that there is no excellence without great labor.

An exact classification of the elements composing syllables and words is impossible. The formation of the elements proceeds in a more or less regular series from the most open vocal sound as heard in ah to the closest aspirates or mutes, represented by p, t, and k.

For purposes of instruction and practice, the following classifications are sufficiently accurate.

The first division of the elementary sounds of the English language is as follows:

1. VOCALS, which consist of pure tone ;

2. SUB-VOCALS, consisting of tone and breath united; 3. ASPIRATES, composed of breath only.

These may be termed the three links in the Odd Fellowship of speech, the sub-vocals uniting the two extremes, vocals and aspirates. This is the natural division of the elements, and is common to all lan. guages.

The Vocals are subdivided as follows:

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