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1. Forward and backward. With hands on hips, knees and trunk straight, bend the body forward, then backward as far as possible. Repeat as often as desirable.

2. Sideward. With the same conditions as in the preceding, bend the body first to the right side, then to the left, and continue the required number of times.

3. Twisting the Trunk. With hands as before and feet kept firmly in position, twist the body to the right until the face is turned directly to the rear; then reverse the movement, twisting the body to the left in like manner.

4. With hands on hips, bend the body to the right, and then swing it around forward and to the left, back and around to the right, describing, with the head, as complete and large a circle as possible. The same movement is reversed. Three times each way is enough for one practice. The body is allowed to rotate freely at the hips, without bending the knees or moving the feet.


1. Forward and backward. With hands on hips, body kept erect and firm, first bend the head forward, then back, and repeat.

2. Twisting. Turn the head to the right, bringing the chin over the shoulder, then to the left and repeat. 3. Sideward. Incline the head over the right shoulder, then over the left, and so continue.

4. Circular Movement of Head. Incline the head

to the right, let it swing forward and around to the left, back and around to the right, allowing it to rotate freely, with muscles of the neck relaxed. Repeat but three or four times, then reverse the movement. If continued too long, this exercise may produce dizziness; but practiced in moderation, it is beneficial to the health, and encourages greater ease and freedom in the movements of the head in speech.


1. With hands on hips, elbows well back, and body erect, rise on the toes with an elastic spring, and then return gently to the commencing position.

2. Raise the body to the "tiptoe position," as in the preceding exercise. Then, by bending the knees, lower the body to a "squatting" position, but keeping the trunk erect, heels off the floor, and hands on the hips. Return to erect tiptoe position, and continue the exercise without letting the heels touch the floor.

In this, as in all physical exercises, practice gently until strength and facility are acquired.

The following additional exercises for instep flexions may be practiced with some profit and no little amuse


3. The Rocking Movement. Rise on toes and keep in tiptoe position. Advance right foot to front; then, with a springing movement, reverse the position of the feet, carrying the left foot to the front, and the right foot, at the same time, to the rear,-continuing the movement with a very elastic and light bound, allowing only the toes to touch the floor.

Another more complex exercise is the following:

4. Alternate spreading and crossing of feet. From the tiptoe position, with a springing movement spread the feet to the right and left; then, with another spring, cross them (the right in front of the left); then spread them apart as before; and then, with another spring, cross the left in front of the right. Continue the movement with very light, elastic bounds, and always keeping on the toes.


1. With arms extended horizontally to the right and left, hands hanging loosely at the wrists, shake the arms, allowing the hands to dangle with perfect freedom as though they were lifeless appendages.

2. With elbows bent and pressed against the sides of the body, lower arm extending to the front and upward, the hands hanging loose at the wrists, shake the lower arm up and down, sideways and around.

These exercises give flexibility to the wrists-a most essential condition in gesture.

A good exercise for acquiring the difficult art of letting the arms hang loosely from the shoulders and just where the attraction of gravitation takes them (which is one of the most important positions of the arms at rest), is the following:

3. Let go the arms, allowing them to hang by the sides perfectly relaxed. Gently twist the body to the right, then to the left, and continue to increase the rapidity and strength of the movement, allowing the arms to swing or "flop" with perfect freedom.


Taking the mind or will out of the arms, and concentrating it upon the movements of the body," will as

sist the pupil in accomplishing this, at first, difficult exercise.

All movements that aid in the partial or complete natural relaxation and tension of the muscles of the trunk and limbs, contribute largely to the requirements of Action in the expression of thought and feeling.

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Perhaps one of the very best general exercises for the complete and partial relaxation or "decomposing' of the various muscles of the neck, trunk, and limbs, is what the author of this work calls, in his "CALISTHENIC EXERCISES" (a small manual published some time ago), "THE INDIAN DANCE."

The directions are as follows: Take "first position,” rise on the toes, arms hanging loose by the sides, and muscles of the neck and trunk relaxed. With the weight of the body on the right toe, hop twice; then, with the weight on the left toe, hop in the same manner, and so on-alternately changing from one toe (foot) to the other.

Be sure to keep the muscles of the neck, trunk, and arms relaxed in the execution of this exercise, that it 'may result in a healthful and invigorating influence to the whole system.

The relaxation of the muscles of the neck and arms should be complete the trunk and lower limbs but partial.

The student of Elocution will find that in all physical exercises, especially the Breathing, it will be necessary to wear the clothing loose, in order to practice the movements with comfort and profit.


Suit the action to the word, the word to the action, with this special observance, that you o'erstep not the modesty of nature.-Shakespeare.

What a piece of work is man! How noble in reason! how infinite in faculty! in form and moving how express and admirable ! in action how like an angel! in apprehension how like a god!—Shakespeare.

SINCE, in the evolution of human expression, Gesture preceded speech, and in speech, Voice preceded Articulation, so this natural order should be observed in the study of Elocution.

The study of gesture, and the practice of well-directed exercises for its encouragement and culture, is the first department of Expression to which the attention of the student should be called.

Anatomy teaches that the movements of man are, by nature, those of grace. The articulations of the bones, and the attachment and arrangement of the muscles, all show that "the human form divine" was fashioned to execute graceful curves not angularities and straight lines. Artificial and awkward movements are natural to no one. To be natural, therefore, is to be graceful.


True gesture is largely the spontaneous outgrowth of the thought and feeling. "Nothing is more deplorable than a gesture without a motive." Hence, the student should not aim to acquire gesture so much as to acquire flexibility of the muscles, and habits of ease and grace of movements.

The more readily and correctly the physical nature

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