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ORGANS OF SPEECH.

THE study of Elocution presumes some knowledge of the Organs of Speech. Certainly the cultivation and preservation of the voice cannot be so well and so surely effected without such a knowledge as they can with it. And for the correction of faults in breathing, in the production of tone, and in articulation, it is not only important, but essential, that a knowledge of the organs of speech be possessed by those who wish to correct such faults in themselves or in others.

The Organs of Speech comprise the Breathing Organs, which furnish and control the breath; the Vocal Organs, which convert the breath into tone, and which give to voice its various characteristics, such as fullness, resonancy, purity, and other qualities; and the Articulatory Organs that manufacture the tone and breath into articulate elements of speech.

THE BREATHING ORGANS.-Of the muscles and organs that furnish and control the breath, the following are the most important :

1. The Diaphragm, a muscle separating the abdominal from the lung cavity. It forms the floor of the chest and the roof of the abdominal cavity.

2. The Abdominal Muscles, extending across the abdomen and the waist in front.

3. The Costal and Intercostal Muscles (from costa, a rib), which are attached to the ribs, and in conjunction with the abdominal muscles and the diaphragm, aid in the elevation and depression of the short ribs. This

movement is most noticeable in the panting of the tired horse.

4. The Pectoral Muscles, so called from their extending over the pectus or chest.

5. The Thorax, or the cavity containing the lungs. 6. The lungs, with their numerous air-cells and tubes all connected and terminating in two tubes-one from each lung, called

[Plates from I. to V. inclusive are from Brown & Bhenke's "Voice, Song, and Speech," London.

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PLATE II.-THE LUNGS, BRONCHIAL TUBES, TRACHEA, AND LARYNX.

V, Larynx or "voice-box."

W, Trachea or windpipe, with its two branches, called bronchi.

R, Right Lung.

L, Left Lung, showing the divisions and ramifications of the left bronchus, with the subdivisions of the air tubes that terminate in small cavities or points, called "air-cells."

7. The Bronchi, which also join, forming the large tube known as,

8. The Trachea or Windpipe.

THE VOCAL ORGANS.-The Vocal Organs comprise the Larynx or Voice Box, and the Resonance Chambers.

The Larynx is situated at the top of the trachea, and consists principally of the following parts:

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12, 13. Thyroid or "shield ""

cartilage.

14. Cricoid or "ring" cartilage.

10, 11. Epiglottis or "lid " of Glottis.

5. Hyoid or "tongue" Bone-(os hyoides).

16. Trachea, showing the cartilaginous rings of which it is composed.

1, 2. Upper Horns of the Thyroid Cartilage.

3, 4. Lower Horns of the Thyroid Cartilage.

6, 7. Horns of the Hyoid Bone.

15. Elastic Membrane or Band uniting the Thyroid with the Cricoid Car tilage.

1. The Thyroid Cartilage, composed of two parts, called ale, or wings, which are joined together in front, and form the prominence known as Adam's Apple. Below this and connecting it to the trachea is,

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7, 8. Hyoid Bone.

9, 12, and 10, 13. "Buffer" and "Prop" Cartilages.

11, 14, 15. The Epiglottis.

16. Trachea.

17.

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Cushion" of the Epiglottis.

18, 19. Posterior Crico-Arytenoid or "ring-pyramid " Muscles.

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20, 21, and 22, 23. Constrictors of the "Vestibule or entrance to the Larynx.

2. The Cricoid Cartilage, so called from its resembling a seal ring-the seal or large portion extending backward, forming the base of the larynx and the foundation for the attachment of,

3. The Two Arytenoid or Pyramid Cartilages, which are movable upon their bases, and are employed in approximating or bringing together,

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PLATE V.-VIEW OF A SECTION OF THE LARYNX FROM ABOVE.

1, 2. Muscular Processes of the Arytenoid Cartilages.

3, 3. "Ring" Cartilage.

4, 1, and 5, 2. Posterior Crico-Arytenoid or "back ring-pyramid " Muscles.

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6, 7. Vocal" processes of the "pyramid " Cartilages.

6, 11, and 7, 12. Vocal Ligaments or Bands.

8. Arytenoid Muscle.

9, 10. Elsberg's "Vocal Nodules."

13, 14. Thyroid Cartilage.

15, 16. Lateral Crico-Arytenoid or "side ring-pyramid" Muscles. 19 and 20. Crico-Arytenoid or "ring-pyramid " Bands.

4. The two vocal Ligaments, which are also called "vocal chords," but more properly, "vocal bands."

The Vocal Ligaments are thin, semicircular membranes, with straight, firm, elastic edges, that approach each other when tone is to be produced. The outer circular edges are attached to the inside of the larynx.

The anterior or front ends of their straight edges are fastened at a common point near the base of the Larynx; the posterior end of each is attached to the apex of an Arytenoid Cartilage.

By the movement of these " pyramid " cartilages upon

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