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Shame, Grief, and Humility are indicated by the hanging down of the head.

Arrogance and Pride, by its being thrown back and a little to one side.

Firmness and Courage, by holding it in an upright and firm position.

Affirmation and Permission, by the forward nod.

Negation and Dislike, by the shaking and tossing of the head back.

Languor and Diffidence are implied by the head being allowed to droop or incline to one side.

Dislike and Horror are indicated by the averted head. In Attention, the head leans forward; in Listening, the ear is turned to the front.

THE EYES. The eyes, with their adjuncts, the eyebrows and eyelids, are capable of the most subtle expression. Their power and significance are greater than all the other features combined.

"A single look more marks the internal woe
Than all the windings of the lengthened 'oh!'
Up to the face the quick sensation flies,
And darts its meaning from the speaking eyes.
Love, transport, madness, anger, scorn, despair,
And all the passions, all the soul is there."

The orator and reader who fails to avail himself of the help which comes from the look, and the varied emotions which the eye may express, can never feel the electric thrill that vibrates between the speaker and hearer. Through the sense of sight, we seem to have the power of "touching each other at a distance." The eyes should be directed to the face of the audience.

As a general thing, they precede a gesture, and return immediately to the hearer, that the emphasis by voice and action may be augmented by the look.

In reading, the eyes should leave the page as often and as long as possible without losing the place. They should be trained to gather at a glance the whole of each clause or phrase; and as often as it is safe, the reader should deliver the words looking at the audience. The best time to take the eyes from the book is near the close of a sentence. The period pause will enable the eyes of the reader to return to the page and catch the beginning of the next sentence.

The following are some of the most significant uses of the eyes.

In Prayer, the eyes are raised.

In Sorrow, they weep.

In Anger, they burn.

Scorn is expressed by the averted eyes when accompanied by the other facial means.

In Grief or Shame, they are cast down, turned away, or hidden.

Doubt and Fear cause the eyes to be cast in various directions.

In Meditation and Thought they are fixed on vacancy.

Dr. Austin, in his Chironomia, says: "As much of the mind is discovered by the countenance, and particularly through the windows of the eyes, so all men examine the countenance and look into the eyes of those from whom they have any expectations, or with whom they are to have any important intercourse or dealings. Nay, the very domestic

animals learn thus to read the human countenance, and the dog is found to look for his surest and most intelligible instructions into his master's eyes."

THE ARMS AND THE HANDS.-The significance of the Arms and Hands is more marked, and their use of more frequent occurrence than that of all the other means for physical expression combined. Especially

is this true in Oratory.

Besides the more general uses of the arms and hands heretofore given in the exercises for drill, the following are what elocutionists regard as especially significant in the expression of certain emotions:

Pain or distress is indicated by placing or pressing the hand upon the head.

Shame or Sorrow, upon the eyes.

Silence, upon the lips.

An Appeal to Conscience or a Declaration of Love, by placing the hand on the breast over the heart.

Deep Affliction and Mental or Physical Distress are expressed by both hands pressed in the same position. In Joy, the hand is waved.

In Dislike and Contempt, flourished.

In Friendship, the arms are extended, and sometimes received.

The fingers of the right hand placed in the palm of the left denotes fixing a point-used in argument.

Carried from the lips outward means throwing a kiss. This movement also signifies a giving out or sending forth words in cordiality and candor.

THE BODY.-The Body, in its different attitudes and

positions, expresses different emotions and conditions of the mind, and thus has its significance in the communi. cation of thought.

Resolution and Courage hold the body erect.

Pride throws it back.

Condescension and Compassion take a stooping pos


Reverence and Respect are denoted by a bending of the body.

Polite recognition, by bowing.

Great Humility and Abasement, by utter prostration. THE LOWER LIMBS.-Obstinacy and Bravery are indicated by the firmness of the lower limbs.

Desire and Courage, by the attitude or act of advancing.

Timidity and Weakness, by the bended knee or unsteadiness of the limbs.

In Dislike and Fear, they shrink and retire.

In Terror, they start.

In Authority and Anger, they stamp.

In Submission and Prayer, they kneel.

Imitative Gestures may sometimes be employed with good effect in graphic description and in comic styles.

The foregoing exercises and instructions in Physical Expression comprise but a portion of this great department of Elocution; but what are given are fundamental, and will be found more than ample for the limited time which the student of elocution generally deems practicable to devote to this branch of the subject.

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