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ever interest might still be existing there, journeyed back again into Belgium. Before this time, he had obtained the co-operation of the then celebrated divine Dannhauer, of Strasborg, who, however, now felt it his duty to protest against the sacrifice of truth to peace. On this, in a published pamphlet, Dury cited his opponent to appear before the judgment-seat of Christ; and the almost immediate death of Dannhauer no doubt served to confirm him in his pre-conceived opinions. His chief stay, at this time, was a harmony of Protestant Confessions, published in the Syntagma Confessionum,' Geneva, 1654; which he dispersed into every corner of Western Europe. Finding it difficult to return to England, and yet perceiving it to be requisite that, at his advanced age, he should have some definite home, he accepted the invitation of Hedwig Sophia, Landgravine of Hesse, and about the year 1664 settled at Cassel, making his excursions from, and with a view of returning to, that place. Again we find him in Switzerland, whence he visited the Palatinate, and extended his tour to Berlin, where he was in 1667. During the next three years, his wanderings were more widely extended than ever they had been before; were we to trace him from state to state, and from principality to principality, a volume, instead of an article, would be requisite. But, in 1670, he made the discovery that his attempts, so far as the Lutherans were concerned, had been conducted on a wrong principle; that he should not have sought for the acquiescence of the whole body in his scheme, but should have endeavoured to interest, one by one, the separate Lutheran communities in its success. He therefore thought it necessary, so far as they were concerned, to begin all over again; and, in 1671, printed, at Cassel, his Axiomata Communia quæ procurandæ et conservandæ Paci inter Evangelicos judicata sunt necessaria.' This he sent into Sweden, and, in 1672, to Spener at Frankfort. In the latter year he published a Brevis Disquisitio de veris Fundamentalibus.' He here reduced all that a Christian need to believe to the bare articles of the Apostles' Creed; he summed up his obedience in the Decalogue, and his hope in the Lord's Prayer. He added that the Ecumenical Creeds ought to be embraced so far as they were clear; and that Louis Bayly's 'Practice of Piety,' and Arndt's Treatise on True Christianity,' ought to be embraced by all. After such a declaration, no Lutheran would answer him in any private communication; but Meisner replied to him publicly. His last extant letter is addressed to Count de la Gardie, Chancellor of Sweden, and is dated May 6, 1672; but he lived and wrote long after this. In 1674, he published-and the work shows no evidence of decayed faculties-a treatise in French, Touchant l'Intelligence de l'Apoca

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lypse, par l'Apocalypse même;' and here he first gave evidence that he had adopted the system of George Calixtus, and was willing to embrace Roman Catholics as well as Protestants and Reformed, in his pacification. In 1676, he printed 'Le véritable Chrétien; and in the following year, a pamphlet in the same language, on Christian Union. In 1678, the Quaker Penn visited him at Cassel; after which we have no authentic accounts of his proceedings. It is said, however, that he survived the year 1690; but of the exact date or circumstances of his death no record exists. Whatever might have been his mistakes, however impossible in its very nature was the union which he proposed to effect, however entirely, in his desires for pacification, he offended against the unity of the true faith, it is impossible but to believe that a life of such unwearied labour, of such constant self-denial, of such indefatigable devotion to one, and that so holy an object, must at last have merited the blessing promised to the peacemakers. God grant that it may have been so!

Any one who has been travelling northward through the province of Sleswig, will not easily forget the beauty of the view, when after traversing the huge central common, and the beechcovered hills of that country, he first catches sight of the Flensborg Fjord, of the four spires of the busy bustling little town beyond it, of the deep forests in which it is embosomed, and the intense blue of the creek on which its fishing craft are riding at anchor. If, when you reach the place, instead of turning to the right down the high street, you keep to the left, eight or ten miles will bring you to the little village of Medelbye, or Meelbye, with its rough First-pointed church, and interior wall-arches. Here it was that in the year 1586 was born George Kallisön, better known by his Latinized name of Calixtus. His father John, the son of a tradesman at Aabenvae had been a pupil of Melanchthon's at Wittemberg, and of Chytræus; then a schoolmaster, and finally settled as pastor at Medelbye, an office which he held for fifty years. The ingenuity of the adversaries of Calixtus discovered ill omens in his very name. Thus Walch insisted that it should properly be written CALrinomIXTUS; and another divine found out a inanifest identity between the name of the great Syncretist and the number of the Beast in the Apocalypse.'

His mother was the second wife of the Sleswig pastor, and some very pretty letters which she wrote in her native Platt Deutsch patois to her son when he was at school, are still extant;

1 He made it out thus: take D, signifying the title of Doctor, and the name Calixtus, write them together, and count six of the letters,—and there, sure enough, is 666: DC a LIXt Vs.

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one in which, speaking of his absence, she prays that the dear God, who is Almighty, would bring him back again to her and his father;' another in which she sends him a pair of summer gloves, and promises to make the next better.' The pastor himself was, as his friends used to call him, a Latin man: he wrote in Latin, he talked in Latin, he thought in Latin; he used to write Latin epigrams to his wife and his children; their baptism and their birthdays were celebrated in Latin acrostics and chronostics. As we have said, he changed Kallisön into Calixtus, and Medelbye with him was always Medeloboa. At that time, the Concordien Formel, as we have before said, was not received in Sleswig: the pastors were under the charge of a Superintendent, and were sworn to the following six articles; 1, to believe and maintain Holy Scripture; and 2, the Three Creeds; and 3, the Confession of Augsburg, the Articles of Smalcald, and the greater and lesser Catechisms of the Holy Father and Doctor Martin Luther; 4, to embrace the Lutheran doctrine concerning the Sacrament of the Altar; 5, to oppose all teaching contrary to 2 and 3, but chiefly-6, all Anabaptists, Sacramentaries, Zuinglians, Carlostatians, Calvinists, and Bezaites. This, therefore, must have been the religious instruction of young Calixtus, both in the parsonage of Medelbye, and when, at the age of twelve, he was sent to school at Flensborg.

Helmstädt was the university selected for the young Danish student. It had been founded by Julius of Brunswick, in 1576, and was from him known officially as the Academia Julia. that time it was the scene of a vigorous conflict between the old Lutheran party and the Humanists and Philippists, and it was to the latter faction that Calixtus joined himself. He spent six years in studies, the character and severity of which were amply shown afterwards, by his vast attainments. A journey in 1609 to Jena, Giessen, Mainz, and Tübingen, made him known to the principal Lutheran and Reformed divines; and a second tour, which occupied from 1611 to 1613, took him to Cologne, to Leyden, and to England. Here he contracted an intimacy with Isaac Casaubon, a man the most likely of all to influence a mind already disposed to ideas of a general pacification. His very

1 'Noch deutlicher aber sieht man aus dem Briefe das treue Mutterherz, welches keine grössere "Freude hat als von des Sohnes Gesundheit und seinem Wohlstande zu erfahren;" sie bittet das der liebe Gott, der allmächtig ist, ihr und seinem Vater allezeit gute Zeitung von ihm verleihen möge; bis er aus dem fremden ri Lande weder zurckwandern werde; sie und sein Vater sind noch ziemlich zufüeden nach alter Leute Weise ;" sie dankt für Geschenke, und schickt ihm wieder, ein Paar Sommerhandschuh; ein andermals will sie es besser machen, jetzt soll er vorlieb nehmen, und wenn er noch etwas brauche was sie ihm verschaffen könne, soll er es schreiben; sie empfiehlt ihn dem lieben Gott, dass er ihn gesund spare nach seinem göttlichen Willen.'-Henke, p. 82.

interesting Latin journal, lately published at Oxford, amply proves his desire for unity, not always according to knowledge, on the principles of the primitive Church. Thus, for example, he writes under the date of January 1st, 1611:

'O great Ruler of the world, Thou hast given me a desire of directing my life according to Thy precepts; but when I inquire after Thy will, I am sometimes perplexed by the so widely differing tenets of men. It appears to me hard to account Thy ancient Church to have fallen into such perilous ignorance, that they who seek to be saved must now embrace an opposite belief. I see some defending, under the pretext of antiquity, the grossest errors; and others, while they avoid modern mistakes, who make everything new; together with abuses they condemn the use of many most holy institutions, and abrogate them by their own authority. I see that the authors of a necessary reformation agree among themselves so little, that one of them is held a wolf by the other. Christ Jesus, the very name of Thy primitive Church has the greatest weight with me; and I am persuaded that things approved by that, and in no wise contrary to Thy Holy Scripture, should not rashly be rejected or altered,'


On October 20th, 1611, he writes:

This day, I and my wife, with a part of our family, communicated in the Lord's Supper with the French Church. (He of course means the French Protestant congregation.) Thou knowest, Christ Jesus, what are my hesitations in this most sacred matter, and how much more I approve of the Anglican form. But I am led by a pious wish not entirely to abstain from communion with that Church. I see that I should thus be a stumblingblock to weaker brethren, from which may God preserve me. I seem to be able to say this with confidence; either the whole ancient Church thought wrongly of that benefit and mystery, or else those of our days grievously offend with respect to it. I beseech Thy Majesty, Eternal God, to heal the diseases of Thy Church, and to deliver those from scruples who seek to serve Thee with a pure mind.'

Again, October 31st, 1610:

'I was invited to-day to be present at the service for the consecration of two Scottish bishops and one archbishop. I observed the rites, and the imposition of hands, and the prayers. O God, how great was my pleasure! Do Thou, Lord Jesus, preserve this Church, and give a better mind to our Puritans, who deride such things.'

Yet, on the 19th of June in the next year, he says:—

'I was present to-day at the consecration of two bishops,'-that is, Giles Thompson of Gloucester and John Buckeridge of Rochester,-'and observed the very beautiful ceremonies, though the pomp was, perhaps, excessive.'

It is no wonder that a man who could thus see faults on all sides, and was worn out with the unceasing theological disputes of his time, should at length write, Nov. 21st, 1611:—

'Lord Jesus, I am weary of living; my useless life is tedious. My former studies have been lost; those which I am now carrying on make me ashamed as a novice. On all sides is distress.'

After spending some time in London, Calixtus visited both Oxford and Cambridge; in the university libraries he spent a great part of his days. To the English court he had the easier


access, from the circumstance that Anne, queen of James I., was sister to Elizabeth, Duchess of Brunswick. It is related by one of his biographers, that our traveller used to affirm, in after years, My studies in ecclesiastical history owe more to English bishops and to English libraries, than to anything I ever learnt in Germany.' Returning by way of Paris, where he became acquainted with the celebrated De Thou, he was deterred from visiting Italy, by the fear that one or two writings which he had already published against Roman Catholics might endanger his safety in that country. He therefore returned to Helmstädt, intending to devote himself to an academical life.

The first occurrence which gave him an European reputation happened shortly after his return. A young nobleman of Hildesheim, Ludolf von Klencke by name, was about to join the Roman Church. His mother, much distressed by this change of religion, persuaded her son that it was his duty to examine for himself what could be said by a Lutheran divine in disputation with his Roman advisers. He consented; Calixtus was named as the champion on one side, the Jesuit Augustinus Turrianus on the other. The dispute was held in the castle of Hämelschenburg, on the Weser; and Calixtus laid down these three theses as grounds of discussion:-1. Whatever the Roman pontiff determines is infallibly true; this is the foundation and first principle of the Popish religion, and it is false. 2. Whatever Holy Scripture teaches is infallibly true; this is the first principle and foundation of the orthodox and catholic religion, and it is true. 3. In those things which are clearly laid down in Scripture, all matters necessary to salvation are contained. The acts of this dispute were never published in the lifetime of Calixtus, who had given his word that they should not appear; they were printed at Helmstädt, after his death. Certainly, in their present form, they give the Lutheran Doctor the undoubted advantage; but it may not be altogether unfair to remember the fable of the man and the lion. Else there is no doubt that the Jesuits put forward a very incompetent advocate. Take this as an example :


• Turrianus. As if contraries could not be true at one and the same time.

'Calixtus. Sir, for God's sake, learn logic. Assertions absolutely contrary to each other may both be false at one and the same time, but never can, at one and the same time, both be true.

Turrianus. You choose to pronounce this on your own authority. 'Calixtus. It is not I who say it, but right reason and all logicians without one exception; there is not a scholar who is ignorant of it.'

And the finale was as follows:

'Turrianus. I see that you are exceedingly vehement, to such a point as to neglect yourself and your own health; you would do wisely if you would

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