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sakwala rocks, Himála forests, rocks encircling Méru, heavens, suns, and moons, will be involved in this destruction, which will extend to the brahma-lókas; whosoever would escape from this calamity, let him assist his parents, respect his superiors, avoid the five sins, and observe the five obligations."* The beings in the world, in great fear, approach the déwa, and ask him whether he has learnt this by his own wisdom, or has been taught it by another; when he replies, that he was sent by Maha Brahma, the déwa of many ages.† On hearing this declaration, the men and déwas of the earth regard each other with affection, from the fear that comes upon them, by which merit is produced, and they are born in a brahma-lóka.

When the hundred thousand years have elapsed, rain begins to fall at the same time in each of the sakwalas, at the appearance of which men rejoice, and the husbandmen begin to cultivate their fields; but when the rain has risen so high as that cattle might nibble it, no more rain will descend. The clouds entirely disappear; there is no more rain for a hundred thousand years; all forests are parched up; men suffer much from hunger and thirst, and then die; the déwas who reside in flowers and fruits, the yakás, garundas, nágas, and other beings of a similar description, after the endurance of much suffering, pass away, and are born in the déwa-lókas, and afterwards in the brahma-lókas; and the beings that have no merit are born in the hells of some outer sakwala.

After a long period, a second sun appears suddenly in the sky, and by its rays the 11,575 rivers, and the smaller ponds, tanks, and other places, are dried up, and white sand is formed.

After another long period a third sun appears, that burns up the five great rivers. Of these three suns, one traverses the sky, one is behind the mountain Hastagiri, and the other remains continually in the centre of the sky, causing its rays to fall without ceasing upon the whole of the four great continents. The déwa of the previously existing sun, terrified by the greatness of the heat, is born in a

* This warning is called kappa-kóláhala. There are in all five warnings, or presentiments:-1. Kappa-kóláhala; previous to the destruction of the world. 2. Chakrawartti; a hundred years previous to the birth of a universal monarch. 3. Budha; a thousand years previous to the birth of a Budha. 4. Mangala; twelve years before Budha preaches the Mangala-sútra. 5. Moneyya; seven years before Budha explains the Moneyya-piliwet, or ordinances of the rahats.

†This mission of the déwa bears some resemblance to that of Noah, the preacher of righteousness, during the respite of 120 years previous to the deluge. Gen. vi. 3; 1 Pet. iii. 20; 2 Pet. ii. 5.

brahma-lóka, through the power of dhyana. The sun still remains in the sky, but there is no living existence connected with it. Sekra, and the rest of the déwas, through the power of the rite called wáyokasina, are born in the Parittasubha and other brahma-lókas.

After another long interval, a fourth sun is produced. By this the waters of the Anotatta and other great lakes are dried up; they boil as if agitated by a great fire, and then entirely disappear. Thus all the elements, from the Awíchi-naraka below to the Maha Brahmalóka above, are entirely destroyed.

In due time, a fifth sun appears. By means of this sun the waters of the great ocean are dried up to the depth of 100 yojanas, then of 200 yojanas, and gradually on to 1000 yojanas. They are afterwards dried up to the depth of 10,000 yojanas, and the diminution of the water proceeds until it has extended to the depth of 80,000 yojanas; and thus there will be only 4000 yojanas of water left. But the decrease goes on until there is only 1000 yojanas, then only 100 yojanas; and the process continues until the water is reduced to the depth of seven talas (or palm-trees, each 80 cubits long). Thus all the water in the great oceans, from the Aswakarna to the sakwala rocks, is entirely evaporated. There is at last about the depth of one tala, then of seven porisas (the height of a man when his hand is held up over his head, or five cubits); gradually it diminishes to the height of a man, to the loins, the knee, and the ancle, to as much as would fill the feet-marks of cattle, just as the rain does on the surface of the earth in April or October; and finally, out of all the water of the lakes, seas, and oceans, not so much is left as would moisten the end of the finger.

After another long interval, a sixth sun is formed, when the earth and Méru send forth smoke; and there is thicker smoke, and still thicker, in succession. As when a fire is kindled by the potter to bake his clay, there is at first a little smoke, then more, until it rises in a great body; so from the lowest sakwala rock to the mansion of Sekra, all that exists, including the earth and Méru, sends forth one unbroken volume of smoke, which becomes thicker and blacker, the longer it continues to rise.

There is then the appearance of a seventh sun. The earth and Méru are burnt up. The flame reaches to the brahma-lókas. Pieces of rock, from 100 to 500 yojanas in size, are split from Méru, fly into the air, and are there consumed. Thus the earth and Méru are entirely destroyed, so as to be no more seen. Not even any

ashes are visible. As when ghee or sesamum oil is burnt, the whole is consumed, so the whole earth, and all that is connected with it, is entirely destroyed; there are no remains of it whatever. Yet after the seventh sun has been produced, the sakwalas continue to burn through many hundreds of thousands of years, during which all the elements of confusion and ruin exert their power; whirling, roaring, bursting, blasting, thundering, until the work of destruction is perfect. From Awíchi to the brahma-lóka called Abhassara, the whole space becomes a dark void. The brahmas, déwas, men, animals, all beings of every degree, disappear, and the space once occupied by a kela-laksha of sakwalas becomes a dark abyss. This destruction is called Téjo-sangwartta.

A hundred thousand years previous to the destruction of the earth by water, a déwa appears to warn all the beings concerned of the event, as when it is destroyed by fire. A cloud forms at the same time in a kela-laksha of sakwalas, and after raining for a short time disappears. After an immense interval another cloud appears, and the rain called Khárodaka begins to fall; at first in small drops, but gradually increasing in size until they are as large as a palm-tree, This rain is so acrid that it dissolves entirely the earth and all things connected with it, after which the body of water thus produced mingles with the water of the Jala-polowa, upon which the earth had previously rested; but it is said by some, that though these waters are mingled together in one mass, there is still in that mass a separation of the two kinds of water, so that the one can be distinguished from the other. The rain goes on until the whole space between Ajatákása and the brahma-lóka called Parittasubha* is destroyed, and the void pervaded by a thick darkness. All the beings in a hundred thousand sakwalas disappear. This destruction is called Apo-sangwartta.

When the earth is destroyed by wind, there is a rain as when it is destroyed by fire or water; and after the elapse of an immense interval, a wind arises, that stirs up the fine dust, and then the gravel; and it then goes on to tear up stones, rocks, and trees, taking them into the air without letting them fall, grinding them, making a fearful noise, and reducing them to powder by the concussion, so that they entirely disappear. The wind called Prachanda arises from

*The Commentary on the sacred text says, "Whenever the kappo is destroyed by water, it perishes by the water below Subhakinno."-Turnour's Annals, No. 3.

beneath the earth, and tears up rocks that are 500 yojanas in size, hurling them into the air, and destroying them. It next dashes earth against earth, Himála against Himála, Méru against Méru, sakwala-gala against sakwala-gala, déwa-lóka against déwa-lóka, until the whole are destroyed. This destruction includes all places between the world of men and the ninth brahma-lóka, called Subhakírnnaka, which is 10,123,400 yojanas above the earth. The jala-polowa is blown into the air, and entirely disappears. Finally, from the world of men to the tenth brahma-lóka, called Wéhappala, is 13,320,600 yojanas; and the whole space between Ajatákása and the tenth brahma-lóka disappears; it is abandoned by all beings, and becomes dark and void. The déwas are born, through the exercise of the meditative rite called bháwaná, in the brahma-lókas that survive the destruction. The beings in the narakas, through the power obtained from their karma, or moral action, are born in the naraka of some other sakwala; or in an ákása, or aerial abode, formed by the same power. There are other beings that by the power of the rite called wáyokasina are born in the brahma-lókas; or if still under the power of demerit, the merit they have received in births long previous exercises its power, and prevents them from going to a place of pain. The destruction produced by the agency of wind is called Wayo-sangwartta. (Súryódgamana-sútra-sanné.)

Previous to the destruction by water, cruelty, or violence, prevails in the world; previous to that by fire, licentiousness; and previous to that by wind, ignorance. When licentiousness has prevailed, men are cut off by disease; when enmity, by turning their weapons against each other; and when ignorance, by famine.

In every instance, so complete is the destruction, that no remains whatever of the sakwalas are to be found, not even anything answering to the ashes of wood that has been consumed by fire; the air above the earth, and that below, mingle together, as there is nothing to separate the one from the other. Whether the medium of de

*At the end of the day of Brahma, a dissolution of the universe occurs, when all the three worlds, earth, and the regions of space, are consumed with fire. The dwellers of Maharloka (the region inhabited by the saints who survive the world) distressed by the heat, repair then to Janaloka (the region of holy men after their decease).-Wilson's Vishnu Purána.

† According to the system of the Brahmans, the ten lower worlds are partially destroyed at the close of every kalpa, equal to a day of Brahma, and renovated at the end of each succeeding night; so that there are 36,000 revolutions of the world during one cycle of its existence. But at the dissolution of Brahma there is a maha pralaya, or complete destruction of the whole universe; all things being utterly annihilated and reduced to entire nothing


struction be fire, water, or wind, it is equally complete. But it is not to be supposed that these effects are produced by any innate power of their own. As the world is at first produced by the power

ness; or, if we adopt another idea, all things being merged in the deity, until Brahm shall awake and a new world be manifested. "That immutable power, Brahma, by waking and reposing alternately, re-vivifies and destroys in eternal succession, the whole assemblage of locomotive and immoveable creatures."-Manu, Inst. i. 57. "The Brahma-mimánsa (or Védánta) endeavours to reconcile the existence of moral evil under the government of an all-wise, all-powerful, and benevolent providence, with the absence of freewill, by assuming the past eternity of the universe, and the infinite renewal of worlds, into which every individual being has brought the predispositions contracted by him in earlier states, and so retrospectively without beginning or limit."-Colebrooke, Miscellaneous Essays, i. 377.

It is said to have been taught by Hermes, that the Governor of the world, "always resisting vice, and restoring things from their degeneracy, will either wash away the malignity of the world by water, or consume it by fire, and restore it to its ancient form again." The Egyptians supposed the world would be destroyed, partly by inundation, and partly by conflagration. Cudworth's Intellectual System. This idea was entertained by Pythagoras, and may have been received either during his residence in Egypt, or in his travels in Asia. It was the opinion of Anaximander, that worlds are continually in the course of formation, and that they are as constantly re-dissolved into the infinity, Tо dπepov, whence they are derived. Empedocles and Heraclitus, and afterwards the Stoics, supposed that the world is generated, and then corrupted; and that this is done again and again in revolutions infinite. This phrase of Heraclitus had great celebrity, "All is, and is not; for though in truth it does come into being, yet it forthwith ceases to be.' -Lewis, Biograph. Hist. Phil. i. 111. Plutarch says, that the shaking of the four bars within the circular apsis of the sistrum represented the agitation of the four elements within the compass of the world, by which all things are continually destroyed and reproduced. The Gnostics of the Alexandrian school taught that as the Godhead can never have been unemployed, an endless series of worlds must have preceded the present, and an endless series of worlds will follow it.-Giesler, Text-Book of Eccles. Hist. Similar opinions were entertained by the Druids and Mexicans.-Faber's Origin of Pagan Idolatry, vol. i. cap. ii: "Concerning the Pagan Doctrine of a Succession of similar Worlds.' But by the Peripatetics and others a different doctrine was taught. They were of opinion that the world had never been created and could never be destroyed; as they could trace in the universe no seminal principles, they believed it to be "fatherless and eternal, destitute of origin, and beyond the influence of fate." "Violent corruptions and mutations take place in the parts of the earth; at one time, indeed, the sea overflowing into another part of the earth; but at another, the earth itself becoming dilated and divulsed, through wind or water latently entering into it. But an entire corruption of an arrangement of the whole earth never did happen, nor ever will."-Taylor's Ocellus Lucanus.

It was the doctrine of Budha, that there are not only alternate destructions and renovations of the world, but that each successive world is homogeneous in its constituent parts, having the four continents of the same size, with the same cities, under different names; but though the general features are the same, and in many instances the same individual actors are introduced, this resemblance does not extend to an identity of events, as was taught by some of the Greeks. It was affirmed by many of the Stoics that from the beginning to the end of the world, all things are dispensed by a regular law, so that not only as to the successive conflagrations and inundations, but also

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