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made himself feared in the province. And he trod his enemies under foot and gave gifts freely unto the people, and freed 50 Rohana from all danger. And his people were so well pleased with him that they said, "This is our great lord." Thenceforth he was known throughout the land as "The great lord."

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And king Silá-dáṭha* heard of these things, and being much pleased thereat gave him his daughter in marriage with a large 52 portion; and considering him well-fitted to fill the throne, he gave him also the office of sub-king. And his sons were Mánavamma and others whose fame was very great.

53 And having learnt the doctrine at the feet of the great elder who dwelt at Pásáṇadípa, and being much pleased with him, he 54 built and dedicated to him a vihara in Rohana in token of his great reverence for him, but the elder left it for the monks in 55 the four quarters of the earth.† He built the Ambamála Vihára

and many others also, among them the Khadiráli Vihára, where 56 he made offerings to the gods. He also repaired the buildings

that were very old of the Anuráráma Vihára, and ornamented it with festoons of pearls. This great and learned man renewed 57 the buildings Sirivaḍdha and Takkambila, wherein he established thirty-two monks, having provided for them all the necessaries 58 of monastic life. He gave to the Nága Vihára the village

Kevaṭṭa Gambhíra; to the Rája Vihára, Gonnagama; to the 59 Tissa Vihara, Kantika-pabbata; and to the Cittala-pabbata

Vihara, the village Gonnaviṭṭhi. In like manner, this king gave 60 to the Ariyakari Vihára the village Málavatthuka, and built 61 an exceeding beautiful image-house there. For the statue of Buddha which stood there he made a very costly ornament for the forehead, and a golden band, and celebrated the giving of 62 the gifts with all festivities that were due. He repaired the

Cetiya when it broke down, and plastered it with white cement, and set up another statue of the blessed Buddha, fifteen cubits 63 high, which he named Metteyya. In this manner did this great ruler not only give great heed himself to the performance of many good deeds, but caused his servants to do the same, and 64 he was fortunate in that he had a great number of men devoted

* This name does not appear in the list of preceding kings. Could it be a misnomer for Silámegha, who ascended the throne after slaying Dalla Moggallána? See chap. XLIV., v. 60, et seq.

† Literally, monks belonging to the four quarters of the earth, i.e., the general Order of monks throughout the world.

to good works, by whom were built many viháras with the necessary furnishings thereof.

On one occasion when he was travelling through a forest in 65 which no man dwelt, it happened that he had to pass the night there with all his followers. And when he had washed and 66 anointed himself with oil, and had eaten of a rich meal, he went to lay himself on the soft bed that had been prepared for him in a fine tent. But seeing that sleep came not to him, he examined 67 whether anything had befallen him during the day by reason of which his slumbers could be disturbed. And finding no such 68 cause, he concluded that the reason thereof lay without, and sent men to find it, saying, "Surely certain of my venerable friends are 69 even now being drenched with the rain under the trees; bring them hither to me if ye meet with them." And the king's 70 servants went forth with torches and searched everywhere, and came upon a number of monks who had come from Mahágáma, and who were taking shelter under the trees in the forest (because they had been overtaken by the night). And the 71 king's servants took word of this to the king and he set out quickly, and, being much pleased at seeing them, brought them to his own abode and gave them suits of yellow robes from the 72 number that had been set apart for distribution daily. And their robes that had been wet he caused to be dried, and, having 73 given them water to wash their feet with, and other things that were necessary, he made them all sit down on well-spread couches, and served them himself with the medicinal food that had been 74 brought for them. And in the morning also he gave them their victuals, and, having done other things also that were necessary, he provided them with attendants and sent them 75 away pleased on their journey. In this manner did this prince, who loved good deeds, pass his days.

And while this chief of men was leading a life devoted to good 76 works and setting an example to the whole country and province, his son Mána, who was in the eastern country, raised an army 77 and, with the help of his father's men and his treasure, set out to Tipucullasa to make war. And when Dáṭhopatissa heard 78 thereof, he set out from Tambalanga with a great army, and a fierce battle ensued when the armies encountered each other. 79 And the strong men of Dáṭhopatissa killed Mána and his followers in this battle. And when Dappula heard of his son's 80

• Dappula's son. (See v. 16, 21.)

defeat and his death, he was stricken with grief as with an arrow, and died. He reigned seven days at Anuradhapura and 81 three years at Rohana. The story, therefore, of his life is connected with Rohana and this place also.

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Even so do men kill each other as the opportunity giveth itself, and gain a glory which may disappear at any moment like a flash of lightning. What wise man will place any trust therein ?

Thus endeth the forty-fifth chapter, entitled "The Reigns of Four Kings," embodied in the Mahávansa, composed equally for the delight and amazement of good men.

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CHAPTER XLVI.

ND when Hatthadáṭha (Daṭhopatissa) died, his younger brother, the prince Aggabodhi, ascended the throne with the title of Sirisańghabodhi. He was a just king, and 3 as he took a right view of things, he did much good. He took care of the refectories of the three fraternities and added greatly to the resources of the Mahápali alms-hall, and prohibited the destruc4 tion of animal life. And as he was not ambitious of keeping all power in his hands alone, he bestowed offices on men according to their deserts, and conferred honours on them according to their 5 attainments or their rank. This wise and prudent man caused the religious Paritta* to be rehearsed by priests of learning where6 soever he found them, and them he honoured duly. And he 7 heard the doctrine of the Supreme Buddha preached unto him by Dáthásíva, the elder of the Nágasála monastery, a man of great wisdom, virtue, and learning. And he was greatly delighted therewith, and regarded it as the means of gaining every happiness. 8 And when the king had heard of the many cruel acts which the Theriya brethrent had suffered in former times from his wicked and evil-disposed ancestors, he repaired and restored to that 9 Order all its viháras and parivenas that had been brought to ruin, and endowed all their monasteries with gifts of land 10 of great value. Verily he made the religious houses, which were decaying because they had not the wherewithal to support them,

A collection of Buddhist Sútras or sermons the recital of which is supposed to have the effect of protecting men from evil.

†The monks belonging to the Mahá Vihára.

to bloom with new vigour. And to the Order also he appointed servitors in places that needed them.

For this elder Dáthásíva he built a house of devotion* and 11 called it after his own name; and the generous man took the gift, but gave it afterwards to be enjoyed in common by the Order. And for this building he set apart the following villages :- 12 Bharattála, Kihimbila, Kataka, Tuládhára, Andhanáraka, Andhakára, Antureļi, Bálava, Dváranáyaka, Mahá-nikkaḍḍhika, 13 and afterwards Pelahála also. And when he had set apart these lands of great plenty and others also, he appointed his own 14 kinsmen as guardians thereof.

In like manner, he bestowed many lands for the support of the 15 viháras belonging to the two fraternities also, whenever he saw or heard that they were in want thereof. But what advantageth 16 it to speak at length? It is enough to mention that he bestowed on all the three fraternities one thousand villages of great plenty, whereof no man disputed the title.

And as he pondered always on the great merits of the three 17 Sacred Gems, he made the king's string of pearls into a rosary.† So also by all the means that lay in his power he showed him- 18 self to be a devoted servant of the holy law, and his subjects followed his example, and themselves abode by the law.

And one of the king's officers, a Tamil, by name Pottha-kuṭṭha, 19 a man of great wealth, built a wonderful house of devotion, which he called Máṭambiya, and gave to it the villages Búkakalla, Ambavápi, Tantaváyika-Cáṭika, and Nitthila-veṭṭhi, with 20 the tenants thereof. He himself erected buildings at Kappúra, 21 Parivena, Kurundapillaka, and Mahárája-ghara, and gave three villages to viháras and other places.

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A wise commander in the king's army, named Potthasáta, built a pariveņa at the Jetavana Vihára, and called it by the king's 23 name. Also a Tamil, by name Mahákanda, built a pariveņa and called it by his own name; and another built the Cullapantha 24 Pariveņa; and the king's sub-king, Sanghatissa, built the Sehála Uparája Pariveņa. And many others followed the king's 25

• The name seems to denote a peculiar structure built in former times for the use of Buddhist ascetics who strove to attain supernatural power or the subjugation of the senses by austerities and other methods prescribed for such proposes. A full description of them will be found in the "Visuddhi. magga," under the heads Kasina and Bhávaná. Vide infra, p. 5, note ¶.

† A Buddhist devotee uses a rosary to aid him in repeating certain formulas in which Buddha, the Law, and the Order are praised.

example and built viháras in like manner. Yea, such is the 26 nature of man that when a leader treads in the path of goodness or evil, the common people also follow in the same course. Let him that hath understanding keep this in mind.

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The king's most loving and virtuous spouse, Jetthá by name, likewise built the convent Jeṭṭháráma for the use of the sister28 hood, and gave it two villages at Pattapásána and another village connected therewith called Bhelagáma, as well as a hundred 29 servitors. So also the Malaya Rájá, a man of exceeding great

wealth, built a relic-house at the Cetiya at Mandalagiri Vihára, 30 and put a new covering on the middle pinnacle of the Lohapásáda.

Bodhitissa, another man of great renown, built the Bodhitissa 31 Vihára. Yea, all the chiefs in the island built in divers places,

according to their wealth, very many viháras and parivenas. 32 And the reign of this king was wholly one of meritorious

deeds- all which have not been written here through fear of 33 making the history too long. And, indeed, even the narrative that has gone before appears to me somewhat confused, inasmuch as it has been mixed up with remarks on the nature and condition of things which lead men to good or evil.

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And the king repaired some time after to the city of Pulatthi and took up his abode there, and passed all his time in gaining 35 merit. And while he dwelt there he was attacked with an

incurable disease. And as he knew that death was drawing nigh 36 unto him, he called all the people together and exhorted them

to live according to the law, and thus departed this life. And the people were all stricken with great grief at his death, and 37 bewailed and lamented themselves accordingly, and failed not in one single ceremony at his cremation. Even the ashes of the pyre they collected and kept for their use as medicine. And 38 then they took charge of all the royal treasures and kept them with great care, and returned with the whole army into the city. 39 Thus did the King Aggabodhi leave this life for heaven in the sixteenth year of his reign.

And Potthakuṭṭha, the Tamil, thereupon took the government 40 into his hands, and having taken Dáthásíva, the sub-king, captive, he cast him into prison, and took steps to defend the country from 41 danger. But seeing that a country could not be kept in possession without a king, he sent unto Datta, a chief of Dhanapitthi, 42 of the royal race, and anointed him, and gave him the title of king, but kept the government of the country in his own hands. This Datta built a vihára, which he called after his own name,

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