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the provisions made for the course of alms to the sons of Buddha should be kept up as before, even in the same manner as the deceased king had done.

Now, during the reign of his royal brother the priests who had come from Siam, headed by the elder Upáli, arrived at the city 7 of Sirivaḍdhana; and afterwards those priests, who had come 8 with Upáli as their chief, set up a consecrated boundary (‘Símá') according to (the manner of proceeding known as) the Ñáttidutiya-kamma,* in the Kusumáráma,† which is to the south side of the city; and within this consecrated boundary the king 9 Kittissiri had built an Upósatha hall. And when the king saw that this hall was in a state of decay, because that he loved merit he raised the site from the border of the limit and all 10 around it, and by putting more stones therein built the walls of 11 the inner limit. And then he fixed stone pillars therein, and dedicated the Upósatha hall to the priests from the four 12 quarters. He was skilled also in many languages, such as Páli, Sanskrit, and the like, and given to charity, and was in form like 13 unto the God of Love. And as he was skilled in the science of words, he composed the Asadisa Játaka in Siņhalese poetry, and 14 published it. And by reason of his faith the pure-minded king caused one hundred thousand lamps to be lighted in one night, and caused the Tooth-relic to be carried in procession. And 15 when he had learnt that the gift of the Kathina was the most meritorious of all gifts, he bestowed Kathina robes on the priest16 hood every year. And as he desired greatly to attain Buddha

hood, he caused a statue of Buddha, of the king's size, to be cast 17 in bronze, and built a beautiful Cetiya, pleasant to the eye, at the famous Gangáráma Vihára.



And the king, having acquired these and other merits, departed hence according to his deeds in the eighteenth year of his reign.

Thereupon Siri Vikkama Rájasíha, a firm man, and Rájádhi 20 Rájasíha's sister's son, became the ruler of the land. And when he had hearkened to the Law proclaimed by the Conqueror, the 21 king was pleased therewith, and offered to the sacred Tooth-relic 22 jewellery, such as pearls, gems, and the like, and many lands also ; and many times also he gave excellent food to the priests who

• A certain mode of making and carrying a resolution in a chapter of priests.

†The Malvatta Vihára.

were followers of Buddha. Thus did this lord of the land gain these and other merits.

But afterwards he joined himself to evil companions and 23 changed his ways. And he caused great ministers and many other officers to be seized and put to death; and, like unto 24 Death himself, he showed no mercy, and caused many hundreds 25 of people to be seized and brought from divers places and impaled. 26 And, like a robber who plundereth the country around him, he seized their vast possessions which they had inherited from generation to generation.

And while this ruler of men was committing such manifold deeds of wickedness, the Sinhalese that were incensed against 27 him, and the inhabitants of Colombo, came hither; and they all 28 joined themselves together and took the wicked and unjust king captive in the eighteenth year of his reign, and banished him to the opposite coast. And after that they had banished the king, 29 who was a scourge to the country, the English took possession of the whole kingdom.

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I. Translation of Chapter XXXIX. by Professor Rhys Davids published in the Royal Asiatic Society's Journal, 1872. (Referred to in page 9.)*

1 THEN that wicked king called Kásyapa, having sent a horsekeeper and a cook to kill his brother, and being unable to do so, became afraid and went to the Lion Rock (Sígiri); and having thoroughly cleared the place difficult for men to climb, and surrounded it by a rampart, built there a climbing gallery ornamented with lions, whence it acquired its name.





Having collected his wealth, he buried it there carefully, and put guard over the treasures he himself had buried in different places, and built a palace there, beautiful to look at and pleasant to the mind, like a second A'lakamanda, where he lived like Kuvera.

The general called Migára built there a monastery of the same name, and a coronation hall, where he asked that the coronation should take place with more splendour than the Silásambuddha; but being refused, kept quiet, thinking, "I shall know about it when the rightful heir comes to the kingdom."

Having repented (the king) did no little charity, thinking, "How shall I get free from the deeds I have done ?" He spent much wealth on the gates of the city, and made a mango garden every eight miles throughout the land; and having built the Issara-samana monastery as a place sacred to Buddha, he bought still more fruitful land and gave to it.

He had two daughters, "The Wise One" and "The Lotus-coloured," and he gave their names and his own to this vihára. When he gave it the faithful priests would not have it, fearing the blame of the world that it was the work of a parricide. But he still intending to give it them, bestowed it on the image of Buddha; then the priests received it, saying, "It (has 14 become) the property of our Master." In the same manner, in a garden near the rock, he made a monastery, and it was called by their name. He gave that vihára, abounding with the four necessary gifts, and a garden in the Northern Province, to the Dhammarucis.





He having tasted a dish given to him, and prepared by a woman with kingcocoanut milk and ghee, and seasoned with excellent curry, thought: "This would be good for priests, I will give them some," and gave (accordingly) a meal like that and a suit of robes to all the priests.

He observed the eight rules, and meditated much and vowed vows, and had books written, and made many images, and dining halls for priests, and such like things. Yet he lived on in fear of the other world and of Moggallána.

Then, in the eighteenth year, Moggallána, that great warrior, by the advice of the naked mendicants, came here from Jambudvipa with twelve chiefs as friends, and collected his army at Kuṭhári Vihára ('the axe temple'), in the district Ambaṭṭhakolaka. The king hearing this, saying, "I will catch and eat him," started forth with a large army, although the fortune-tellers said, "You cannot do it."

And Moggallána, too, marched out with his armed force and hero friends, like the god Sakra going to the battle field of the Titans. The two armies

*The italics are mine, to indicate where material differences occur between his and my translation.

met one the other, like oceans when their waves are broken, and began the mighty battle. Kásyapa, then, seeing right in front a marshy hole, turned aside his elephant to go another way. Seeing him, his army gave way, saying, "Our master is flying." But the soldiers of Moggallána cried out, saying, "We see his back"; and that king cutting off (Kásyapa's) head with his sword, threw it into the air, and put back his sword into its sheath.

Then, performing the funeral rites, and confirming the acts of the late king, 28 and taking all the baggage, he entered the wonderful city. The priests hearing this news, well clothed and well robed, swept the vihára, and stood in order. He entered the Mahámeghavana, like the king of the gods entering 30 his garden Nandana, and stopping his mighty army outside the elephant wall, and approaching and saluting them, he was well pleased with the priesthood there, and offered his kingdom to the priests, and the priests gave it back to him. They began to call that place "The gift of the Kingdom," and the vihára which had been made there acquired the same name.

He went to the citadel, and having entered both the viháras and bowed 33 low to the priesthood, he took to himself the supreme sovereignty, in righteousness protecting the people. Being angry with the priests, saying, "They assisted at the death of my father, these bald heads!" he took away the Tooth, and thence acquired the name of “Devil.”

He slew more than one thousand ministers, cut off the noses and ears of 35 others, and many he banished from the land. After that he listened to the Law, became quiet and of a good heart, and gave great treasure, as a rain-cloud to the broad earth. He gave gifts every year on the full-moon-day of January; and the custom continues in the Island up to this day.

Then the charioteer (see Máhavansa, page 260) who had given the juicy fried 38 rice to his father, brought his father's letter and gave it to Moggallána. Having seen this, he wept, remembering his father's love to himself, and gave the man the dignity of chief gate-keeper. The Governor Migáro, having told him (all) as it had happened (before), performed the Coronation (anointing) even as he had wished.

The king built on Sigiri rock the viháras called Dalha and Dáṭhákondañña, 41 and gave them to the Dhammaruci and Ságali Orders; and having made a rock vihara, he gave it to the thera, to Mahánáma of the Dighasanda Vihára. (See footnote, page 196.) Also he, the large-hearted, made a residence called Rájini, for nuns, and gave it to the priestesses of the Ságali Order.

But a certain man named Dáṭháppabhuti of the family of the " Hanging- 44 ear'd ones," who had been dissatisfied in the service of Kásyapa, and was afraid of him, had gone with his relation Moggallána to Jambudvipa, and going to Mereliyavagga had settled there. He had a son named Silákála, who took the robes in the Bodhimaṇḍa Vihara, and there lived a priest's life, loved of all and virtuous.

He gave a mango to the priesthood, and they, well pleased therewith, cried 48 out, "A mango-pupil." So he was called by that name in future. He having acquired the Hair-relic in the manner related in the book, "The History of the Hair-relics," brought it hither in the reign of this king.

(The king) entertained him hospitably, and received the Hair-relics and 50 placed them in a crystal shrine of great price, and carried them in procession to the noble image-house of Dipankaranagara, and gave a great donation; making golden images of his wife and father-in-law, he placed them there, and a beautiful statue of himself. And he made a casket for the Hair-relic, 53 and a canopy, and a jewelled shrine, and (figures of) the two chief apostles and of the sacred fan: and he gave it a greater retinue than that of the king himself, and made Silákala the sword-bearer, and placed him in charge (over it) so he was called the Sword-bearer Silákala, and the king gave him his sister (to wife) and much wealth. This is said very shortly, but the whole



is well described in the History of the Hair-relic, which the wise should read.

He saved the island from the fear (of inundation and encroachment by building a dyke against the sea). In righteousness he purified the doctrine and ethics of Buddhism; and having built towards the north a palace for his chiefs, called Senapatighara, and done (other) good deeds, he came to his end in his eighteenth year.

Thus that powerful one, Kásyapa, when his merits failed, was not able to resist the approach of death, but became its slave. Therefore the wise will be happy only when they have overcome the power of death; and he who has attained to knowledge of himself will reach Nirwána, the excellent, eternal, place of bliss.

So is finished the thirty-ninth chapter, called the History of Two Kings, of the Máhavansa, which is made for the delight and agitation of righteous men.

II.-Translation of Chapter XLVI. of the Mahavansa, by Professor Rhys Davids, published in the Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1871-72.*

AFTER the death of Hatthadátha Agra Bodhi, the eldest son of the king, also called Sri Sangha Bodhi, became king.

2. He was a righteous king, full of insight, and did innumerable acts of merit.

3. He superintended the maintenance of the priests of the three sects, preserved the canon of scripture, and forbade slaughter.

4. He gave offices impartially, according to merit, and favoured those who by birth or learning were worthy of favour.

5. Wherever he saw priests, he, the high-minded, did them honour, and asked them to say the liturgy (pirit) or talk of religion.

6. He studied under the wise, virtuous, and learned priest Daṭhásíva of Nágasála monastery.

7. And there having thoroughly heard the teaching of the allwise one, being perfected in religion, he became a doer of all gentle deeds.

8. Having heard a discussion between priestesses, who (previous to their putting on the robes) were related to him, he quite turned away his favour from those who were wicked heretics.

9. He restored broken monasteries and parivenas to their former state. 10. He restored alms fallen into abeyance, and gave slaves to the priesthood according to the necessities of each (sacred) place.

11. He made a splendid house for that priest called after his name ; which, having received, he, the high-minded one, gave to the priesthood.

12. And the king gave to him villages for his maintenance, Bharattála and Kihim bila and Kataka and Tuládhára.

13. And Andhakára and Atturoli, and Balava and Dváranáyaka, and Maha Nikatthika and Pelahála also.

14. These villages and others he, the lord of men, gave for maintenance; and he gave servants also of those related to himself.

15. Then, either seeing or hearing that monasteries of both sects were poorly provided for, he gave many villages for their maintenance.

16. But what is the use of much speaking? To the three sects he gave a thousand villages, fruitful ones, and undisputed.

* For differences compare this with the same chapter in my translation.

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